|Scientific Name:||Carduelis citrinella (Pallas, 1764)|
Serinus citrinella BirdLife International (2004)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S. & Ashpole, J|
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be decreasing, but the decline is not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Andorra; Austria; France; Germany; Italy; Liechtenstein; Montenegro; Serbia; Slovenia; Spain; Switzerland
Vagrant:Belgium; Poland; Portugal
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The breeding population, which is confined to Europe, is estimated to number 250,000-283,000 pairs, which equates to 500,000-565,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).|
Trend Justification: The population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 13.2 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is generally found in montane and submontane woods of spruce (Picea), larch (Larix) and pine (Pinus), usually along the edges and in clearings. It also inhabits scattered clumps of conifers in otherwise open areas, as well as alpine meadows, ski-runs, roadside edges, and around alpine huts and gardens in towns. In the non-breeding season it is found in similar habitats in sheltered valleys at lower levels. Breeding begins at the end of March to mid-April and continues until August. The nest is a cup of dry grass, plant fibres, lichens, animal hair, feathers and occasionally wool or paper and usually placed up to 30 m above the ground against the trunk of a tall tree or at the tip of strong horizontal branches. Clutches are three to five eggs (Clement and de Juana 2016). It feeds on small to medium sized seeds and sometimes green material from a wide range of plants and some insects (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species is a partial short-distance migrant and an altitudinal migrant (Clement and de Juana 2016).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||4.4|
|Movement patterns:||Altitudinal Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is threatened by the future effects of climate change (Maggini et al. 2014).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known specific conservation measures for this species.
Conservation Actions Proposed
No conservation measures are currently needed for this species.
|Amended reason:||Map revised.|
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Clement, P. and de Juana, E. 2016. Citril Finch (Carduelis citrinella). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 April 2017).
Jenni, L. and Kery, M. 2003. Timing of autumn bird migration under climate change: advances in long-distance migrants, delays in short-distance migrants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 270(1523): 1467-1471.
Maggini, R., Lehmann, A., Zbinden, N., Zimmermann, N.E., Bolliger, J., Schröder, B., Foppen, R., Schmid, H., Beniston, M. and Jenni, L. 2014. Assessing species vulnerability to climate and land use change: the case of the Swiss breeding birds. Diversity and distributions 20(6): 708-719.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2017. Carduelis citrinella (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22720062A111124877.Downloaded on 20 June 2018.|
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