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Carduelis citrinella 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Fringillidae

Scientific Name: Carduelis citrinella (Pallas, 1764)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Citril Finch, Alpine Citril Finch
Synonym(s):
Serinus citrinella BirdLife International (2004)
Taxonomic Source(s): AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S. & Ashpole, J
Justification:
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be decreasing, but the decline is not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Andorra; Austria; France; Germany; Italy; Liechtenstein; Montenegro; Serbia; Slovenia; Spain; Switzerland
Vagrant:
Belgium; Poland; Portugal
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:1110000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):1500
Upper elevation limit (metres):2500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The breeding population, which is confined to Europe, is estimated to number 250,000-283,000 pairs, which equates to 500,000-565,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend Justification:  The population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 13.2 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:500000-565000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is generally found in montane and submontane woods of spruce (Picea), larch (Larix) and pine (Pinus), usually along the edges and in clearings. It also inhabits scattered clumps of conifers in otherwise open areas, as well as alpine meadows, ski-runs, roadside edges, and around alpine huts and gardens in towns. In the non-breeding season it is found in similar habitats in sheltered valleys at lower levels. Breeding begins at the end of March to mid-April and continues until August. The nest is a cup of dry grass, plant fibres, lichens, animal hair, feathers and occasionally wool or paper and usually placed up to 30 m above the ground against the trunk of a tall tree or at the tip of strong horizontal branches. Clutches are three to five eggs (Clement and de Juana 2016). It feeds on small to medium sized seeds and sometimes green material from a wide range of plants and some insects (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species is a partial short-distance migrant and an altitudinal migrant (Clement and de Juana 2016).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):4.4
Movement patterns:Altitudinal Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by the future effects of climate change (Maggini et al. 2014).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known specific conservation measures for this species.

Conservation Actions Proposed
No conservation measures are currently needed for this species.

Amended [top]

Amended reason: Map revised.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No

Bibliography [top]

BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Clement, P. and de Juana, E. 2016. Citril Finch (Carduelis citrinella). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

Jenni, L. and Kery, M. 2003. Timing of autumn bird migration under climate change: advances in long-distance migrants, delays in short-distance migrants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 270(1523): 1467-1471.

Maggini, R., Lehmann, A., Zbinden, N., Zimmermann, N.E., Bolliger, J., Schröder, B., Foppen, R., Schmid, H., Beniston, M. and Jenni, L. 2014. Assessing species vulnerability to climate and land use change: the case of the Swiss breeding birds. Diversity and distributions 20(6): 708-719.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2017. Carduelis citrinella (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22720062A111124877. . Downloaded on 20 June 2018.
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