|Scientific Name:||Prunella modularis (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A., Ashpole, J|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Egypt; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, European Russia); Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Vagrant:Faroe Islands; Iceland; Kuwait; Svalbard and Jan Mayen
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe (which covers >95% of the breeding range), the breeding population is estimated to be 12,700,000-21,800,000 pairs, which equates to 25,400,000-43,500,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).|
Trend Justification: In Europe the overall trend for 1980-2013 was a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in a wide variety of habitats across its range. It breeds in scrub and stunted woodland in alpine, subarctic and tundra habitats in the north and east of the range. In the north of the range it uses coniferous, broadleaf and mixed forests, particularly alongside water. In the west of the range (from the U.K., Belgium and western Germany south to Iberia) it is mainly found in lowlands, using managed woodland with thick understorey, hedges and farm woodland, suburban and urban gardens, parks, and any other habitat with scrubby vegetation. It breeds from March to July across much of the range, whilst in Russia it breeds from May to August. The nest is a cup of twigs, stems, roots, grass and moss, lined with hair, wool and sometimes feathers, located above the ground in a bush, hedge or tree. It lays three to six eggs. It feeds mainly on arthropods but supplements its diet with seeds in the winter (Hatchwell 2016). In western Europe the species is resident; in western-central Europe it is partially migratory, making altitudinal movements in montane areas; in Fennoscandia and central Europe it is fully migratory (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||4.6|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||The decline in the U.K. is thought to be due to changing farming practices which has allowed other passerines to force this species into more marginal sites (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997). However no specific factor has been found for these local declines (Hatchwell 2016).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. The species has been listed as ‘amber’ on the U.K. national red list (Hatchwell 2016).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Research should look into the threats in areas where the species is declining and assess their impact.
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Crick, H. Q. P.; Sparks, T.H. 1999. Climate change related to egg-laying trends. Nature 399: 423-424.
EBCC. 2015. Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme. Available at: http://www.ebcc.info/index.php?ID=587.
Hagemeijer, E.J.M. and Blair, M.J. 1997. The EBCC atlas of European breeding birds: their distribution and abundance. T. and A. D. Poyser, London.
Hatchwell, B. 2016. Dunnock (Prunella modularis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Hüppop, O.; Hüppop, K. 2003. North Atlantic Oscillation and timing of spring migration in birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 270: 233-240.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Jenkins, D.; Watson, A. 2000. Dates of first arrival and song of birds during 1974-1999 in mid-Deeside, Scotland. Bird Study 47: 249-251.
Jenni, L. and Kery, M. 2003. Timing of autumn bird migration under climate change: advances in long-distance migrants, delays in short-distance migrants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 270(1523): 1467-1471.
Tøttrup, A. P.; Thorup, K.; Rahbek, C. 2006. Patterns of change in timing of spring migration in North European songbird populations. Journal of Avian Biology 37: 84-92.
Vähätalo, A. V.; Rainio, K.; Lehikoinen, A.; Lehikoinen, E. 2004. Spring arrival of birds depends on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Avian Biology 35: 210-216.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Prunella modularis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22718651A88047392.Downloaded on 17 December 2017.|
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