|Scientific Name:||Anthus petrosus|
|Species Authority:||(Montagu, 1798)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Belgium; Denmark; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Iceland; Ireland; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Spain; Sweden; United Kingdom
Vagrant:Croatia; Czech Republic; Gibraltar; Montenegro; Serbia (Serbia); Svalbard and Jan Mayen
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The breeding population, which is confined to Europe, is estimated to number 164,000-281,000 pairs, which equates to 329,000-562,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occupies exposed rocky sea coasts and islands with low vegetation. It occasionally breeds away from coast, such as on St. Kilda (western Scotland), or on islands in large inland lakes, such as in southern Sweden. It can also occur inland along estuaries and at various wetlands or along less rocky coasts, during migration and in winter. Breeding occurs from mid-March to August and varies with latitude. The nest is built by the female in a crevice in a cliff, in a small cavity on a bank or grassy slope, or under a rock or clump of vegetation. It is as a bulky cup of grass stems, leaves and seaweed and rather flimsily lined with finer material. Clutches are four to six eggs. It feeds primarily on invertebrates but will also take seeds. The species is resident and migratory: the nominate race is largely resident, with some short-distance dispersal; kleinschmidti may move short distances inland to rivers and lakes or to sandy shores; littoralis is migratory (Tyler 2016).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||3.7|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||There are few threats to this species’s habitat. Locally, oil pollution on rocky shores can have an adverse, although generally temporary, effect on this species’s invertebrate prey (Tyler 2016).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Locally, the enforcement of stricter legislation on oil transportation would be beneficial to this species.
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Tyler, S. 2016. Rock Pipit (Anthus petrosus). In: J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D.A. Christie and E. de Juana (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Anthus petrosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22718567A88198297.Downloaded on 23 August 2017.|
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