|Scientific Name:||Sylvia atricapilla (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cape Verde; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Hungary; Iceland; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malawi; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Moldova; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, European Russia); Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Sudan; Spain (Canary Is.); Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Yemen; Zambia
Vagrant:Benin; Cameroon; Chad; Greenland; Mongolia; Rwanda; Seychelles; South Africa; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Zimbabwe
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Shirihai et al. (2001) estimated the population to exceed 10 million individuals, but in Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 40,500,000-64,500,000 pairs, which equates to 81,000,000-129,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.80% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 101,000,000-161,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be increasing owing to afforestation and land use changes leading to increased shrubby growth in parts of its range (del Hoyo et al. 2006). In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate increase (EBCC 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species breeds in almost any kind of forested area. It prefers broadleaf deciduous forest and mixed woodland, either mature or more open and with denser understorey. In addition it occupies riparian forest, parks and gardens with trees, fruit-tree plantations, orchards, and evergreen woodland. In the winter, it uses more with bushy areas rich in berries and other fruits, such as maquis and garrigue, olive groves, urban gardens and palm plantations. In Africa it is found in a large spectrum of habitats from lowland savanna rich in fruit trees to mangroves, riverside woodland and montane scrub and forest. Availability of fruit influences seasonal variation in habitat occupation. Breeding mainly occurs from mid-April to August and it lays two to seven eggs. The nest is a finely structured cup with rather thin walls and bottom, made of grasses and herbs and some twigs and rootlets and lined with finer grass, hair and roots. It is normally built low in broadleaf deciduous vegetation, especially in dense foliage of a shrub or bush or the branches of a small tree but also in tall herbaceous vegetation. The diet consists chiefly of insects in the breeding season and mainly fruit the rest of the year. On Atlantic and Mediterranean islands the species is sedentary, in the Mediterranean Basin and in parts of western Europe it is partially migratory and it is a long-distance migrant in northern and eastern parts of its range (Aymí et al. 2013).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||4|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||In England, browsing deer (Cervidae) in young woodland can adversely alter habitat quality for understorey-dependent species such as this warbler (Holt et al. 2013). The species is trapped in some parts of its range.|
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II. Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within Europe.
Conservation Actions Proposed
No conservation measures are currently needed for this species within its European range.
Aymí, R., Gargallo, G. and Christie, D.A. 2015. Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Bezzel, E.; Jetz, W. 1995. Delay of the autumn migratory period in the Blackcap (Sylvia atricappila) 1966-1993: A reaction to global warming? Journal für Ornithologie 136: 83-87.
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Crick, H. Q. P.; Dudley, C.; Glue, D.E.; Thomson, D.L. 1997. UK birds are laying earlier. Nature 388: 526.
Crick, H. Q. P.; Sparks, T.H. 1999. Climate change related to egg-laying trends. Nature 399: 423-424.
Croxton, P. J.; Sparks, T. H.; Cade, M.; Loxton, R. G. 2006. Trends and temperature effects in the arrival of spring migrants in Portland (United Kingdom) 1959-2005. Acta Ornithologica 41: 103-111.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2006. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 11: Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
EBCC. 2015. Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme. Available at: http://www.ebcc.info/index.php?ID=587.
Holt, C.A., Fuller, R.J. and Dolman, P.M. 2013. Deer reduce habitat quality for a woodland songbird: evidence from settlement patterns, demographic parameters, and body condition. The Auk 130(1): 13-20.
Hüppop, O.; Hüppop, K. 2003. North Atlantic Oscillation and timing of spring migration in birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 270: 233-240.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Jenni, L. and Kery, M. 2003. Timing of autumn bird migration under climate change: advances in long-distance migrants, delays in short-distance migrants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 270(1523): 1467-1471.
Jonzén, N.; Lindén, A.; Ergon, T.; Knudsen, E.; Vik, J. O.,;Rubolini, D.; Piacentini, D.; Brinch, C.; Spina, F.; Karlsson, L.; Stervander, M.; Andersson, A.; Waldenström, J.; Lehikoinen, A.; Edvardsen, E.; Solvang, R.; Stenseth, N. C. 2006. Rapid advance of spring arrival dates in long-distance migratory birds. Science 312(5782): 1959-1961.
Mason, C .F. 1995. Long-term trends in the arrival dates of spring migrants. Bird Study 42: 182-189.
Shirihai, H.; Gargallo, G.; Helbig, A. J. 2001. Sylvia warblers: identification, taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus Sylvia. Helm, London.
Sparks, T. H.; Huber, K.; Bland, R. L.; Crick, H. Q. P.; Croxton, P. J.; Flood, J.; Loxton, R. G.; Mason, C. F.; Newnham, J.A.; Tryjanowski, P. 2007. How consistent are trends in arrival (and departure) dates of migrant birds in the UK? Journal of Ornithology 148: 503-511.
Stervander, M.; Lindström, A.; Jonzén, N.; Andersson, A. 2005. Timing of spring migration in birds: long-term trends, North Atlantic Oscillation and the significance of different migration routes. Journal of Avian Biology 36: 210-221.
Tøttrup, A. P.; Thorup, K.; Rahbek, C. 2006. Patterns of change in timing of spring migration in North European songbird populations. Journal of Avian Biology 37: 84-92.
Tryjanowski, P.; Kuzniak, S.; Sparks, T. H. 2002. Earlier arrival of some farmland migrants in western Poland. Ibis 144: 62-68.
Vähätalo, A. V.; Rainio, K.; Lehikoinen, A.; Lehikoinen, E. 2004. Spring arrival of birds depends on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Avian Biology 35: 210-216.
Zalakevicius, M., Bartkeviciene, G., Raudonikis, L., and Janulaitis, J. 2006. Spring arrival response to climate change in birds: a case study from eastern Europe. Journal of Ornithology 147: 326-343.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Sylvia atricapilla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22716901A87681382.Downloaded on 15 December 2017.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|