|Scientific Name:||Ptyonoprogne rupestris (Scopoli, 1769)|
Hirundo rupestris Scopoli, 1769
Ptyonoprogne rupestris — AERC TAC (2003)
Ptyonoprogne rupestris ssp. rupestris — Cramp and Simmons (1977-1994)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Ptyonoprogne rupestris (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously listed as Hirundo rupestris.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A., Ashpole, J, Wheatley, H.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Cyprus; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lebanon; Libya; Liechtenstein; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mali; Malta; Monaco; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Myanmar; Nepal; Oman; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, European Russia); Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Slovenia; Spain; Sudan; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Yemen
Vagrant:Belgium; Denmark; Finland; Gambia; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 182,000-342,000 pairs, which equates to 363,000-685,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.30% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 1,210,000-2,280,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population in China has been estimated at c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).|
Trend Justification: In Europe the overall trend from 1998-2013 was stable (EBCC 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found on mountains, crags and coastal cliffs and also around human habitations. It breeds from May to August. Both sexes build the nest which is an open half-cup made of mud pellets, lined with grass and feathers and the female continues to add lining during incubation. It is placed in a crevice or under an overhang on a cliff face and also sometimes on a bridge or on or in a building. Clutches are generally two to five eggs (Turner 2004). It feeds on insects, usually taken in flight. Northern populations of this species are migratory while elsewhere it is resident, only making altitudinal movements (Snow and Perrins 1998) and post-breeding movements (Turner and Rose 1989).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||4|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||There are currently no known significant threats to this species within Europe.|
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within Europe.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Currently no conservation measures are needed for this species within Europe.
|Amended reason:||Map edited: Deleted N Indochina. EOO updated.|
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
EBCC. 2015. Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme. Available at: http://www.ebcc.info/index.php?ID=587.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).
Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 2: Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Turner, A. 2004. Eurasian Crag Martin (Ptyonoprogne rupestris). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Turner, A.; Rose, C. 1989. Swallows and martins of the world. Christopher Helm, London.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2017. Ptyonoprogne rupestris (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22712216A118840565.Downloaded on 23 May 2018.|
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