Tichodroma muraria 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Sittidae

Scientific Name: Tichodroma muraria (Linnaeus, 1766)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Wallcreeper
Taxonomic Source(s): Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Afghanistan; Albania; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Cyprus; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Lebanon; Liechtenstein; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Nepal; Pakistan; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, European Russia); Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan
Algeria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Gibraltar; Jordan; Luxembourg; Malta; Morocco; Netherlands; Portugal; United Kingdom
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:17900000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 29,000-69,700 pairs, which equates to 57,900-139,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.10% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 579,000-1,390,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population in China has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:500000-1499999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species inhabits a range of rocky regions, typically including steep, rugged cliffs, boulder-strewn slopes, and damp, shady gorges in mountainous areas, with holes and crevices for nesting and roosting. Grassy ledges generally intersperse the rocks and other vegetation including herbaceous plants, moss, shrubs and trees, and running water are often present. For foraging areas of mixed sunlight and shade are important. In the winter, similar rocky habitats are favoured. In Europe, the breeding season is from April and May to July and August, depending on altitude. Further east the breeding season is from May to July. The nest is made of moss, plant fibres, rootlets and grass, with hair, wool and feathers densely matted together, sometimes as a lining for insulation. It is sited in a cleft in a rock, between or behind rocks or boulders and sometimes on or inside a building. Clutches are three to five eggs. It feeds principally on small and some larger insects, including adults, larvae and eggs, as well as spiders (Araneae) and some other invertebrates. Through most of its range the species is a short-distance and altitudinal migrant (Löhrl and Wilson 2015).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):4
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is under threat from the development of mountain regions (Löhrl and Wilson 2015), such as dam building (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997) and a considerable increase in human leisure activities, especially rock-climbing, which cause disturbance and threaten habitat in breeding and wintering areas (Löhrl and Wilson 2015).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It is protected in most European countries. The species is listed as “critically endangered” in Poland, “vulnerable” in Liechtenstein and “near-threatened” in Slovakia and is also red-listed in Germany (Löhrl and Wilson 2015).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Important areas of habitat for this species should be identified and protected from development as well as restrictions on access put in place.

Classifications [top]

0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:Yes
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No

Bibliography [top]

BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Löhrl, H. and Wilson, M. 2015. Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Tichodroma muraria. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22711234A87830588. . Downloaded on 25 September 2018.
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