|Scientific Name:||Myadestes myadestinus (Stejneger, 1887)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Identification information:||20 cm. Small, dull-coloured thrush. Reddish-brown above, pale grey below, breast and flanks with slightly darker mottling. Dark legs. Short, broad bill. Juvenile dark chocolate-brown above heavily spotted with buff, grey below heavily scalloped with dark brown. Similar spp. Puaiohi M. palmeri smaller with pink legs and longer, more slender bill. Introduced Melodious Laughingthrush Garrulax canorus brighter cinnamon-brown with yellow bill. Voice Song a long melodic cascade of notes including buzzy trills, gurgling whistles, and shorter notes. Calls a variety of short notes including cat-like or frog-like braack and higher pitched "police whistle". Hints Sings from exposed snags in early morning.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Extinct ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Camp, R., Fretz, S., Gorresen, M., VanderWerf, E. & Woodworth, B.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Butchart, S., Harding, M., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S., Martin, R|
This species formerly occurred on the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i, USA, but the multitude of threats in the region have driven it Extinct. The last definite record dates from 1985 and targeted searches in 1995 and 1997 yielded no confirmed reports.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Myadestes myadestinus was endemic to Kaua'i in the Hawaiian Islands (USA). It was the most common of the forest birds in 1891 but, by 1928, had disappeared from the lower altitudes and became restricted to dense montane forest in the Alaka'i Wilderness Preserve (Scott et al. 1986). During 1968-1973, its population was estimated at 337 individuals (USFWS 1983) while, in 1981, an estimated 24 (±20) individuals were present (Scott et al. 1986). The last reliable sighting was in 1985, with unconfirmed reports until 1991 (Gorresen et al. 2009). The lack of confirmed detections despite numerous intensive surveys in areas formerly occupied, particularly in 1995 and 1997 (Reynolds and Snetsinger 2001, Foster et al. 2004), make it now appropriate to classify this species as Extinct (S. Fretz, R. Camp, E. VanderWerf and M. Gorresen in litt. 2003). However, it is worth noting that M. palmeri went many years without being seen, but then began to reappear in small numbers (USFWS 2003).|
Regionally extinct:United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Originally inhabited forest at all elevations, but since 1920s restricted to dense montane forest.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||4.5|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Disease carried by introduced mosquitoes and the destruction and degradation of forests are likely to have been the chief causes of extinction (USFWS 1983). The advance of feral pigs into pristine upland forests degraded habitat and facilitated the spread of mosquitoes (Pratt 1994). Competition with introduced birds may have exacerbated the problems faced by this species (Wakelee and Fancy 1999), and introduced predators are likely to have also played a part (Woodworth et al. 2009). Deprived of lowland forest the species was also exposed to the effects of hurricane damage in upland forest, which severely disrupted portions of native forest and allowed the germination and expansion of noxious weeds (Pratt 1994, Conant et al. 1998). Also potentially detrimental to the remaining suitable habitat are introductions of new alien invertebrates, such as the two-spotted leafhopper (Sophonia rufofascia), which may threaten many food plants of M. myadestinus (USFWS 2003).|
Conant, S.; Pratt, H. D.; Shallenberger, R. J. 1998. Reflections on a 1975 expedition to the lost world of the Alaka'i and other notes on the natural history, systematics, and conservation of Kaua'i birds. Wilson Bulletin 110: 1-22.
Foster, J. T.; Tweed, E.J.; Camp, R.J.; Woodworth, B. L.; Adler, C.D.; Telfer, T. 2004. Long-term population changes of antive and introduced birds in the Alaka'i Swamp, Kaua'i. Conservation Biology 18: 716-725.
Gorresen, P.M., Camp, R.J., Reynolds, M.H., Woodworth, B.L. and Pratt, T.K. 2009. Status and trends of native Hawaiian songbirds. In: Pratt, T.K., Atkinson, C.T., Banko, P.C., Jacobi, J.D. and Woodworth, B.L. (eds), Conservation Biology of Hawaiian Forest Birds: Implications for Island Avifauna, pp. 108-136. Yale University Press, New Haven.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Pratt, H. D. 1994. Avifaunal change in the Hawaiian Islands, 1893-1993. Studies in Avian Biology 15: 103-118.
Reynolds, M. H.; Snetsinger, T. J. 2001. The Hawai'i Rare Bird Search 1994-1996. Studies in Avian Biology 22: 133-143.
Scott, J.M., Mountainspring, S., Ramsey, F.L. and Kepler, C.B. 1986. Forest bird communities of the Hawaiian Islands: their dynamics, ecology, and conservation. Cooper Ornithological Society, California.
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1983. Kauai forest birds recovery plan. USFWS, Portland, USA.
Wakelee, K. M.; Fancy, S. G. 1999. Oma'o (Myadestes obscurus), Kama'o (Myadestes myadestinus), Oloma'o (Myadestes lanaiensis) and 'Amaui (Myadestes woahensis). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 460, pp. 1-28. The Academy of Naural Sciences and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia and Washington, DC.
Woodworth, B.L., Lieberman, A.A., Nelson, J.T. and Fretz, J.S. 2009. Puaiohi. In: Pratt, T.K., Atkinson, C.T., Banko, P.C., Jacobi, J.D. and Woodworth, B.L. (eds), Conservation Biology of Hawaiian Forest Birds: Implications for Island Avifauna, pp. 499-512. Yale University Press, New Haven.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Myadestes myadestinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22708559A94165256.Downloaded on 20 February 2018.|
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