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Bulweria bulwerii 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Procellariiformes Procellariidae

Scientific Name: Bulweria bulwerii (Jardine & Selby, 1828)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Bulwer's Petrel
French Pétrel de Bulwer
Taxonomic Source(s): Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Ekstrom, J., Newton, P.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation).  The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations).  The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure).  For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is pantropical, being found in all three oceans outside the breeding season.  Breeding sites include the eastern Atlantic from the Azores, Portugal to Cape Verde, and the Pacific from eastern China and the Bonin Islands (Japan), east to the Hawaiian Islands (USA), and the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Cape Verde; China; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Indonesia; Japan; Kiribati; Malaysia; Marshall Islands; Mauritania; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Morocco; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Portugal; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Senegal; Spain (Canary Is.); Taiwan, Province of China; Timor-Leste; United States (Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands
Vagrant:
Australia; Barbados; France; India; Ireland; Italy; Maldives; Netherlands; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Trinidad and Tobago
Present - origin uncertain:
American Samoa; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Brazil; British Indian Ocean Territory; Cambodia; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Cook Islands; Côte d'Ivoire; Dominica; Ecuador; Fiji; French Southern Territories; Gambia; Guadeloupe; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Liberia; Madagascar; Martinique; Mauritius; Mexico; Nauru; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Pitcairn; Réunion; Saint Lucia; Samoa; Sao Tomé and Principe; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Suriname; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Western Sahara
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:270000000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number c.500,000-1,000,000 individuals, while national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in China; < c.100 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009).  The European population is estimated at 6,100 pairs, which equates to 12,100 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.  The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is marine and higly pelagic, usually being found far from land except during the breeding season.  Its diet comprises mainly of fish and squid, with minor proportions of crustaceans and sea-striders, feeding largely at night by surface-seizing.  The breeding season begins in April or May, with individuals forming colonies in a wide variety of habitats on offshore islands.  Nests can be burrows, crevices, cracks or caves, under debris or vegetation cover (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Systems:Terrestrial; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):23.9
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The following information refers to the species's European range only: Predation by cats, rats and endemic invertebrates occurs at breeding colonies in the North East Atlantic (Cabral et al. 2005, Matias et al 2009).  A large colony in Desertas Island (Madeira) suffers intense human exploitation for food or fish bait, which also occurs in other North East Atlantic sites although not in the Salvage Islands (Madeira), since the declaration of the islands as a national park (Carboneras et al. 2014).  Light pollution at night might be important cause of mortality in some areas.  Habitat loss at colony sites is also considered a threat to this species in the Canary Islands, Madeira and Azores (Carboneras et al. 2014).  The species is vulnerable to oil spills and marine pollution.  It is at risk of being caught as bycatch in fishing gear including pelagic longlines (Waugh et al. 2012).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed under Appendix II of the Bern Convention, and under Annex I of the EU Birds Directive.  In Europe it is currently listed as occurring in 26 marine Important Bird Areas.  In the EU it is listed within 23 Special Protection Areas.

Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: Ongoing management and eradication of invasive predators at breeding colonies; enforcement and regulation of human exploitation; mitigation and reduction of light pollution from shipping and human settlements; bycatch monitoring on board vessels and reduction and mitigation on fishing vessels where appropriate.

Amended [top]

Amended reason: Map revised.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.1. Marine Neritic - Pelagic
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.1. Marine Neritic - Pelagic
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.3. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.3. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.4. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.4. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.5. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy-Mud
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.5. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy-Mud
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.7. Marine Neritic - Macroalgal/Kelp
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.7. Marine Neritic - Macroalgal/Kelp
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.9. Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.9. Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
10. Marine Oceanic -> 10.1. Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m)
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:Yes
10. Marine Oceanic -> 10.1. Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:Yes
10. Marine Oceanic -> 10.2. Marine Oceanic - Mesopelagic (200-1000m)
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:Yes
10. Marine Oceanic -> 10.2. Marine Oceanic - Mesopelagic (200-1000m)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:Yes
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.1. Marine Intertidal - Rocky Shoreline
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:Yes
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.2. Marine Intertidal - Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:Yes
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.3. Marine Intertidal - Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:Yes
13. Marine Coastal/Supratidal -> 13.1. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No

Bibliography [top]

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Cabral, M.J., Almeida, J., Almeida, P.R., Dellinger, T., Ferrand de Almeida, N., Oliveira, M. E., Palmeirim, J.M., Queiroz, A.I., Rogado, L. and Santos-Reis, M. (eds). 2005. Livro Vermelho dos Vertebrados de Portugal. Instituto da Conservação da Natureza, Lisboa.

Carboneras, C., Jutglar, F., de Juana, E. and Kirwan, G.M. 2014. Bulwer's Petrel (Bulweria bulwerii). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A. and Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

Matias, R., Rebelo, R., Granadeiro, J.P. and Catry, P. 2009. Predation by Madeiran Wall Lizards Teira dugessii on Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea hatchlings at Selvagem Grande, North Atlantic. Waterbirds 32: 600-603.

Waugh, S.M., Filippi, D.P., Kirb y, D.S., Abraham, E. and Walker, N. 2012. Ecological Risk Assessment for seabird interactions in Western and Central Pacific longline fisheries. Marine Policy 36: 933-946.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2017. Bulweria bulwerii (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22698132A110670540. . Downloaded on 18 August 2018.
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