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Eudyptes pachyrhynchus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Sphenisciformes Spheniscidae

Scientific Name: Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Gray, 1845
Common Name(s):
English Fiordland Penguin, Fiordland Crested Penguin
Spanish Pingüino de Fiordland
Taxonomic Source(s): Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Identification information: 60 cm. Medium-sized, yellow-crested, black-and-white penguin. Dark, bluish-grey upperparts. Darker head. Broad yellow eyebrow-stripe that drops down neck. Most have 3-6 whitish stripes on cheeks. Similar spp. Only crested penguin with white stripes. Snares Island Penguin E. robustus has pink skin at base of bill. Erect-crested Penguin E. sclateri has erect crest. Rockhopper Penguin E. chrysocome has crest that begins with thin eyebrow-stripe.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2be+3bce+4bce; C1+2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Ellenberg, U., Long, R., Mattern, T., Otley, H., Seddon, P., Taylor, G.A., Webster, T., Wilson, K. & van Heezik, Y.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Allinson, T, Benstead, P., Mahood, S., Mattern, T., McClellan, R., Moreno, R., Seddon, P., Taylor, J.
Justification:
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a small population which is estimated to have undergone a continuing rapid reduction over the last three generations, based on trend data from a few sites and a variety of threats, especially introduced predators, and this negative trend is projected to continue.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Eudyptes pachyrhynchus nests on Stewart Island and several of its offshore islands, Solander Island and on the west to south-west coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Based on data compiled in Mattern (2013) and a recent survey (Long 2014), the breeding population ranges between 4,400 and 5,600 birds. Non-breeding dispersal patterns at sea are largely unknown.

Countries occurrence:
Native:
New Zealand
Vagrant:
Australia
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:2400Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:81800
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:12Continuing decline in number of locations:No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

The population has been estimated at c.5,500-7,000 mature individuals (Mattern 2013, Long 2014). Due to the cryptic breeding habit and resulting difficulty of surveying the species, this number is likely to be an underestimate (Mattern 2013). At some sites numbers appear to have declined, while slightly increasing numbers have been reported from others making it difficult to identify clear species-wide population trends (Mattern 2013). At Open Bay Island, there was a decline of 33% between 1988 and 1995 (Ellis et al. 1998), and at Dusky Sound there were anecdotal reports of "thousands" of birds in 1900, but only a few hundred remained in the 1990s (Russ et al. 1992).



Trend Justification:  Introduced predators, human disturbance and accidental deaths caused by fisheries are all contributing to an on-going decline in this species's population. Recent historical counts used unstandardised methods and results are hard to interpret, so further research is urgently needed.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:5500-7000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:12Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It breeds in loose colonies along stretches of coastline in habitats ranging from mature temperate rainforest and dense scrub, to coastal caves and rocky shorelines. Penguins arrive at their breeding sites from mid-June onwards, with most nests established by mid-July. Two eggs are laid, which are incubated by both parents and hatch after 33 days (Warham 1974). Chicks fledge around mid- to late November. A diet study on the West Coast found that penguins brought predominantly squid (85%) ashore, followed by krill (13%) and fish (2%) (van Heezik 1989). Penguins from Codfish Island, took primarily fish (85%) and squid (15%) (van Heezik 1990). While breeding the penguins show site-dependent differences in foraging ranges, with birds from the Jackson Head, West Coast foraging within 20-100 km radii from their breeding colonies, while penguins breeding in Milford Sound remained within the fiord most of the time (foraging radius <10 km) (Mattern and Ellenberg 2016).

Systems:Terrestrial; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No
Generation Length (years):9.6
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Introduced terrestrial predators are an eminent threat. Stoats Mustela erminea have been found to predate Fiordland penguin chicks (Wilson and Long 2015). Other predators include dogs (particularly when moulting adults are confined ashore for 20-30 days), cats, and rats (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Mattern 2013). Birds are disturbed by humans at nest-sites (Ellenberg et al. 2015), killed on roads, and can be accidentally captured in gill-nets (Mattern 2013). Squid fisheries potentially compete for food (Ellis et al. 1998). Pollution could become a major threat if proposed deep-sea oil exploration off the West Coast proceeds (Mattern 2013). El Niño events were found to have a detrimental effect on the breeding success of Fiordland penguins from the West Coast, although penguins breeding in Fiordland seem to be less affected by the climate phenomenon (Mattern and Ellenberg 2016).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Conservation Actions Underway

The NZ Department of Conservation (DOC) has established a Fiordland penguin Recovery Strategy 2012-17 plan that includes continued population monitoring at representative sites, implementation of island biosecurity measures, and the investigation of effects of predator control (DOC 2012). Several major research projects have been established since 2014. Between 2014 and 2019, the marine ecology (foraging ranges, diving behaviour, diet composition) of breeding Fiordland penguins is being studied across their entire breeding range; the project will also investigate the pre-moult dispersal of adult penguins (Mattern and Ellenberg 2016). The species’ winter migration will be investigated between 2016 and 2021 (S. Waugh, pers. comm.). A video monitoring study examines the impact of introduced terrestrial predators on breeding Fiordland penguins (Wilson & Long 2015). The Department of Conservation continues its monitoring program at various monitoring sites throughout the species breeding range (Ellenberg et al. 2015).

Conservation Actions Proposed

To expand the use of standardized census methods (Ellenberg et al. 2015) and to survey areas of coastline not surveyed in the 1990s (Ellis et al. 1998). Predator eradication/control – particularly mustelids – is necessary to prevent reproductive failure and mortality (Mattern 2013). Establish guidelines to control visitor access to colonies. Obtain legal protection for accessible colony sites (Taylor 2000). 

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.1. Marine Neritic - Pelagic
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.1. Marine Neritic - Pelagic
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:Yes
10. Marine Oceanic -> 10.1. Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m)
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
10. Marine Oceanic -> 10.1. Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.1. Marine Intertidal - Rocky Shoreline
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.2. Invasive/problematic species control
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over part of range
  Occur in at least one PA:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.3. Temperature extremes
♦ timing:Past, Likely to Return ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.3. Other ecosystem modifications
♦ timing:Future ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Unspecified Rattus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Felis catus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Canis familiaris ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Gallirallus australis ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Mustela erminea ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

Bibliography [top]

DOC. 2012. Fiordland crested penguin Tawaki Recovery Strategy 2012-2017. Department of Conservation, West Coast Tai Poutini Conservancy and Southland Conservancy, New Zealand Document ID: docDM-1427373.

Ellenberg, U., Edwards, E., Mattern, T., Hiscock, J. A., Wilson, R., Edmonds, H. 2015. Assessing the impact of nest searches on breeding birds – a case study on Fiordland crested penguins (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus). New Zealand Journal of Ecology 39: 231-244.

Ellis, S., Croxall, J.P. and Cooper, J. 1998. Penguin conservation assessment and management plan: report from the workshop held 8-9 September 1996, Cape Town, South Africa. IUCN/SSC, Apple Valley, USA.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Long, R. 2014. Fiordland Crested Penguin/Tawaki (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus) Survey: Cascade River to Martins Bay, 2014. Report to the West Coast Penguin Trust.

Marchant, S.; Higgins, P. J. 1990. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, 1: ratites to ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Mattern, T. 2013. Fiordland penguin Eudyptes pachyrhynchus. In: García Borboroglu, P. G. and Boersma P. D. (eds), Biology and Conservation of the World’s penguins, University of Washington Press, Seattle U.S.A..

Mattern, T., Ellenberg, U. 2016. The Tawaki Project: Field Report 2015 – year 2, 13-September-14 October 2015. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3068.1847 .

Russ, R. B.; McLean, I. G.; Studholme, B. J. S. 1992. The Fiordland Crested Penguin survey, stage II: Dusky and Breaksea Sounds. Notornis 39: 113-118.

Taylor, G. A. 2000. Action plan for seabird conservation in New Zealand. Department of Conservation, Wellington.

van Heezik, Y. 1989. Diet of Fiordland crested penguins during the post-guard phase of chick growth. Notorins 36: 151-156.

van Heezik, Y. 1990. Diets of yellow-eyed, Fiordland crested, and little blue penguins breeding sympatrically on Codfish Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 17: 543-548.

Warham, J. 1974. The Fiordland crested penguin Eudyptes pachyhynchus. Ibis 116: 1-27.

Wilson, K.-J., Long, R. 2015. Tawaki / Fiordland Crested Penguin Conservation Management; Predator control - Stage one. Report on year 1 progress. Accessible at http://www.bluepenguin.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/Tawaki-project-progress-report-May-2015.pdf.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Eudyptes pachyrhynchus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22697776A93638571. . Downloaded on 14 August 2018.
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