Aquila gurneyi 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Accipitriformes Accipitridae

Scientific Name: Aquila gurneyi Gray, 1860
Common Name(s):
English Gurney's Eagle
Spanish Aguila Moluqueña
Taxonomic Source(s): Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Mack, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Derhé, M., Dutson, G., Mahood, S., O'Brien, A., North, A.
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it has a moderately small population which is declining owing to habitat loss.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Aquila gurneyi is a wide-ranging species of the Moluccas, Indonesia and New Guinea (Papua, formerly Irian Jaya, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea). There are no estimates of population sizes or trends but in Lakekamu Basin it is sparsely distributed in lowland alluvial forest (A. Mack in litt. 1999). Recent sightings include a subadult and juvenile at Danau Tolire on Ternate (Rheindt et al. 2014) and individuals at Tofu Blewen (Irham 2012) and Seram (Reeve et al. 2014). Surveys on  Obi island failed to find the species, though locals were familiar with the species (Mittermeier et al. 2013).

Countries occurrence:
Indonesia; Papua New Guinea
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:1690000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Population numbers are not known.

Trend Justification:  There are no data on population trends; however, the species is suspected to be in decline owing to habitat loss and degradation.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It appears to be widespread in a variety of forested habitats to 1,000 m, although it seems to prefer primary forest, it has been seen to 1,500 m (Coates 1985, Beehler et al. 1986). Is thought to prey on arboreal mammals such as possums (Pratt and Beehler 2015).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):16.8
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It clearly occurs at low population densities and is likely to be declining slowly through habitat loss and degradation.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to determine density and the affect of disturbance. Effectively protect large areas of lowland rainforest.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over part of range
  Occur in at least one PA:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends

Bibliography [top]

Beehler, B. M., Pratt, T. K. and Zimmerman, D. A. 1986. Birds of New Guinea. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Coates, B. J. 1985. The birds of Papua New Guinea, 1: non-passerines. Dove, Alderley, Australia.

Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.

Irham, M. 2012. Avifauna diversity at central Halmahera North Maluku, Indonesia. Zoo Indonesia 21(1): 17-31.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Mittermeier, J.C., Cottee-Jones, H.E.W., Purba, E.C., Ashuri, N.M., Hesdianti, E. & Supriatna, J. 2013. A survey of the avifauna of Obi island, North Moluccas, Indonesia. Forktail 29: 128-137.

Pratt, T. K. and Beehler, B. M. 2015. Birds of New Guinea. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Reeve, A. H., Haryoko, T., Poulsen, M. K., Fabre, P-H. and & Jonsson, K. A. 2014. New ornithological records from Buru and Seram, south Maluku, Indonesia, 1995–2012. Forktail 30 : 10–22.

Rheindt, F. E., Prawiradilaga, D. M., Suparno, Ashari, H. and Wilton, P. R. 2014. New and significant island records, range extensions and elevational extensions of birds in Eastern Sulawesi, its nearby satellites, and Ternate. Treubia 41: 67-97.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Aquila gurneyi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22696056A93541423. . Downloaded on 22 March 2018.
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