|Scientific Name:||Accipiter gentilis (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M., Khwaja, N. & Ashpole, J|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Albania; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; China; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lebanon; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Myanmar; Nepal; Netherlands; Norway; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saudi Arabia; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Canary Is. - Vagrant); Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Thailand; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United States; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam
Vagrant:Afghanistan; Algeria; Bangladesh; Bermuda; Egypt; Libya; Oman; Pakistan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tunisia; United Arab Emirates
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 166,000-220,000 pairs, which equates to 332,000-440,000 mature individuals. Europe forms approximately 26% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 1,280,000-1,690.000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It is placed in the band 1,000,000-2,499,999 mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: Globally, the population trend is considered unknown. This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe and the EU27 the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 21 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Behaviour The species is mainly resident, but its northernmost populations in North America, Scandinavia and Russia migrate south between September and November, returning in March and April (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Snow and Perrins 1998). Soaring flight is used frequently (Snow and Perrins 1998). It is always seen singly or in pairs (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Habitat It inhabits mature woodland, preferring areas near clearings and the forest edge (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Diet Small birds and mammals make up the vast majority of its diet, with grouse, pheasants and partridges being especially important in boreal zones (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Breeding site Nests are built on the forks or branches of large trees (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Management information The species's optimal habitat appears to be areas of farmland interspersed with mature forest; afforestation has improved its status across parts of its range (del Hoyo et al. 1994).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||7|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Significant declines in Europe in the 19th-20th centuries are thought to have resulted from persecution and deforestation, with later declines in the 1950s-1960s a result of poisoning from pesticides and heavy metals. Persecution continues to be a threat, as is nest robbing for falconry (Orta and Marks 2014). It is also highly vulnerable to the impacts of potential wind farm developments (Strix 2012). In Alaska, U.S.A. clear-cut, even-aged, short-rotation forest management reduces habitat quality for the species as does removal of old growth forest patches (Iverson et al. 1996).|
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1994. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Iverson, G.C., Hayward, G.D., Titus, K., DeGayner, E., Lowell, R.E., Crocker-Bedford, D.C., Schempf, P.F. and Lindell, J. 1996. Conservation Assessment for the Northern Goshawk in Southeast Alaska. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-387. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Portland, Oregon.
Orta, J. and Marks, J.S. 2014. Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). In: J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D.A. Christie, and E. de Juana (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
STRIX. 2012. Developing and testing the methodology for assessing and mapping the sensitivity of migratory birds to wind energy development. BirdLife International, Cambridge.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Accipiter gentilis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22695683A93522852.Downloaded on 17 March 2018.|
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