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Accipiter gundlachi 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Accipitriformes Accipitridae

Scientific Name: Accipiter gundlachi
Species Authority: Lawrence, 1860
Common Name(s):
English Gundlach's Hawk
Spanish Gavilán Cubano
Synonym(s):
Accipiter gundlachii ssp. gundlachii Lawrence, 1860 — Collar and Andrew (1988)
Accipiter gundlachii ssp. gundlachii Lawrence, 1860 — Collar et al. (1994)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information: 43-51 cm. Medium-sized, stocky forest raptor. Adult, dark blue-grey upperparts with blackish cap, and barred rufous underparts. Immature, brown above, paler below, but with dark streaking. Rounded tail in flight. Similar spp. Sharp-shinned Hawk A. striatus is smaller and has squared tail in flight. Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus is broader-winged and -tailed, and chunkier. Voice Loud kek-kek-kek ....

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Kirkconnell, A., Mitchell, A., Rodríguez-Estrella, R. & Ferrer-Sanchez, Y.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D., Khwaja, N., Ashpole, J & Wheatley, H.
Justification:
This species is considered Endangered owing to its very small and severely fragmented population, which has continued to decline until very recently. Trends appear to have stabilised or even reversed over the last five years, and if this is confirmed the species may warrant downlisting to Vulnerable in the future.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species has never been common, but formerly occurred throughout Cuba. It is now very rare and local, with five main population centres known to remain. Most populations of Gundlach's Hawk are located in eastern Cuba with about 44% of suitable habitat for the species, followed by the central region with 32% and Western with 24% (Rodriguez Santana 2008). There are three centres for the nominate race in west and central Cuba, but two of these held only three and 20 pairs respectively in 1994. There are two further areas important for the race wileyi in the east of the island, where the bulk of the population resides. Sightings around Pico Turquino are scarce, but a bird was seen on the north slopes of the Sierra Maestra in early 1999 (Rompré et al. 2000). The current potential distribution of the Gundlach's Hawk covers c. 22,620 km2, which represents 22% of its original distribution (Rodriguez Santana & Viña Davila 2012).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Cuba
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:102000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:11-100Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is estimated to number 350-450 pairs, based on surveys (A. Kirkconnell in litt. 2016), equivalent to 1,050-1,350 individuals (rounded here to 1,100-1,400 individuals) and 700-900 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  The species is suspected to still be slowly declining, owing mainly to habitat loss and persecution. However, recently trends appear to have stabilised or even reversed, with more frequent sightings over a five-year period (A. Kirkconnell in litt. 2012).  Further work is needed to confirm these trends.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:700-900Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:Yes
No. of subpopulations:5Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is found up to 800 m in a variety of wooded habitats including humid, dry and pine forests (Bierregaard 1994a). It preys mostly on birds, including poultry. The breeding season is December-May (Ferrer-Sánchez & Rodríguez-Estrella 2014), with up to four young fledging by June (Bierregaard 1994a, A. Kirkconnell in litt. 1999, Rodriguez Santana & Viña Davila, 2012). The nest is generally placed close to the trunk of a high tree, but below the canopy.

Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):7.2
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Agriculture, hunting, habitat fragmentation, habitat loss, deforestation, mining and fire are threats to this species (A. Kirkconnell in litt. 2016). There are records of young being taken from the wild for trade (Bierregaard et al. 2014). The size of remaining forest patches in most territories does not seem to be sufficient to ensure the presence of isolated populations (Rodríguez-Santana, 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation and Research Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Populations occur within 22 Protected Areas (A. Kirkconnell in litt. 2016), including the Sierra Maestra and Sierra del Cristal National Parks. Environmental education has grown in Cuba in recent years (A. Kirkconnell in litt. 2012).
 

Conservation and Research Actions Proposed Survey Pinar del Río province and the Zapata swamp, and re-survey areas in eastern Cuba to determine current populations and assess trends. Conduct censuses of the species during the breeding season to determine the breeding range of the species and to identify sites to protect. Protect nesting sites and areas of suitable habitat where the species has historically nested. Further define the species's ecological requirements. Conduct education and public awareness campaigns to highlight the plight of the bird and discourage human persecution (A. Mitchell in litt. 1998).  Provide compensation to farmers who lose poultry to Gundlach's Hawks. It is urgent to establish a conservation program particularly focused on this species (Ferrer-Sánchez & Rodríguez-Estrella, 2016).

The Gundlach’s Hawk has lost 80% of its suitable habitat in the entire island and the size of the remaining forest patches in most territories does not seem to be sufficient to ensure the presence of isolated populations (Rodríguez-Santana, 2008). Thus, if endemic species are to be preserved, conservation strategies should be directed towards maintaining natural areas as their populations’ recovery depends on the existence of natural areas with little disturbance. Therefore, it is urgent to establish a conservation program particularly focused on this species (Ferrer-Sánchez & Rodríguez-Estrella, 2016).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.7. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
6. Livelihood, economic & other incentives -> 6.4. Conservation payments

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan

Bibliography [top]

Bierregaard, R. O. 1994. Neotropical Accipitridae (Hawks and Eagles). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 52-205. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Bierregaard, R.O., Jr, Christie, D.A., Kirwan, G.M. and Marks, J.S. 2014. Gundlach's Hawk (Accipiter gundlachi). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Ferrer-Sánchez, Y. and Rodríguez-Estrella, R. 2014. Notas sobre anidación del Gavilán Colilargo (Accipiter gundlachi) en Cuba. Ornitolología Neotropical 25: 355–361.

Ferrer-Sánchez, Y. and Rodríguez-Estrella, R. 2016. How rare species conservation management can be strengthened with the use of ecological niche modelling: The case for endangered endemic Gundlach’s Hawk and Cuban Black-Hawk. Global Ecology and Conservation 5: 88-99.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Rodríguez Santana, F. 2008. Distribución, migración y conservación de las rapaces del orden Falconiformes en Cuba. Dissertation thesis. University of Alicante, Spain.

Rodríguez Santana, F., Viña, N. 2012. Accipiter gundlachi. In: González Alonso, H., Rodríguez Shettino, L., Rodríguez, A., Mancina, C.A. and Ramos García, I. (eds), Libro Rojo de los Vertebrados de Cuba, Editorial Academia, La Habana, Cuba.

Rompré, G.; Aubry, Y.; Kirkconnell, A. 2000. Recent observations of threatened birds in eastern Cuba. Cotinga 13: 66.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Accipiter gundlachi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22695659A93521543. . Downloaded on 09 December 2016.
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