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Numenius phaeopus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Scolopacidae

Scientific Name: Numenius phaeopus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Whimbrel
French Courlis corlieu
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Malpas, L.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Albania; Algeria; American Samoa; Angola; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia; Aruba; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belarus; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bhutan; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Chile; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Colombia; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Curaçao; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Faroe Islands; Fiji; Finland; France; French Guiana; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kiribati; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Luxembourg; Macao; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Montserrat; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nauru; Nepal; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Réunion; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Rwanda; Saint Barthélemy; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Sao Tomé and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovakia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Turks and Caicos Islands; Tuvalu; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Western Sahara; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:
Afghanistan; Burkina Faso; French Southern Territories; Grenada; Jordan; Liechtenstein; Slovenia; Tajikistan; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:31100000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population is estimated to number c.1,000,000-2,300,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). National population estimates include: c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and > c.10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 343,000-402,000 pairs, which equates to 687,000-805,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend Justification:  The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-84.7% decline over 40 years, equating to a -37.5% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. In Europe the population size is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Behaviour This species is fully migratory and travels over land on a broad front utilising few staging areas on route (in autumn no known concentrated staging occurs) (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998). It breeds from May to August (Hayman et al. 1986) either in well-dispersed (Johnsgard 1981) solitary pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1996) or in loose groups depending on the topography of the land (Snow and Perrins 1998). The autumn migration occurs from July onwards (Hayman et al. 1986) with the return passage to the breeding grounds occurring chiefly between March and May (Hayman et al. 1986) (non-breeders may also remain on the wintering grounds all year round) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). When not breeding the species usually forages singly or in small groups (del Hoyo et al. 1996), flying in small parties (Johnsgard 1981) or larger flocks on migration (Flint et al. 1984, Snow and Perrins 1998)and roosting communally at night in mangrove trees or in shallow water (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding The species breeds on dry scrub heathland (Snow and Perrins 1998), moss and lichen tundra with stunted bushes (Johnsgard 1981), sedge meadows (Johnsgard 1981), wet moorland (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998) and mossy hummock bogs (Johnsgard 1981, Flint et al. 1984) in open areas, river valleys (del Hoyo et al. 1996), along the shores of tundra lakes (Flint et al. 1984), in birch forest near the Arctic treeline (del Hoyo et al. 1996), burned areas of forest (Flint et al. 1984) and open montane forest (del Hoyo et al. 1996) in the boreal, subarctic and subalpine zones (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996). It generally avoids extremes of cold and wet, steep slopes, bare rock and gravel expanses or tall dense vegetation (e.g. dense forest) (Snow and Perrins 1998). Non-breeding On passage in the autumn and spring the species frequents wetlands, tidal flats (del Hoyo et al. 1996), short-sward wet and dry grasslands (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), farmland (Hayman et al. 1986) and heathland with Empetrum spp., generally occupying coastal habitats in the winter such as muddy, rocky or sandy beaches (del Hoyo et al. 1996), coral shores (Urban et al. 1986), exposed reefs, tidal mudflats (del Hoyo et al. 1996), sandflats (Urban et al. 1986), mangrove swamps (del Hoyo et al. 1996), tidal marshes (Johnsgard 1981) and lagoons (Urban et al. 1986). Diet When inland on migration and during the breeding season its diet consists of adult and larval insects (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996) (e.g. Coleoptera, Orthoptera and cranefly larvae), spiders, millipedes, earthworms, snails, slugs, seeds, leaves and berries (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (e.g. of ericaceous plants) (Johnsgard 1981). On the coast during the winter the species takes crustaceans (e.g. crabs), molluscs, large polychaete worms and occasionally fish, reptiles or young birds (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow depression (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998) often positioned on hummocks or in short heather or grass (Johnsgard 1981, Flint et al. 1984) in dry exposed locations (Johnsgard 1981, Flint et al. 1984, del Hoyo et al. 1996) sometimes far from water (Johnsgard 1981, Flint et al. 1984). When the breeding habitat (e.g. tundra or heathland) is flat and open the species nests in solitary pairs, but where irregular features such as hummocks and tall vegetation patches give more visual isolation the species may nest in loose groups (Snow and Perrins 1998). Management information A study in the Shetland Islands, UK found that when trying to enhance the grazing quality of heathlands by re-seeding (e.g. with high quality grass-seed mixtures) it is better to apply lime, grass-seed and inorganic fertiliser directly to the surface of the ground rather than ploughing and harrowing the ground first, as the latter maintains more natural vegetation hummocks and heather used by the species for nesting (Grant 1992). Re-seeding of heathland with prior ploughing and harrowing may improve feeding conditions for pre-breeding adults however (Grant et al. 1992).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):9.1
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is susceptible to avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus (Melville and Shortridge 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed on Annex II (B) of the EU Birds Directive.

Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: A study in the Shetland Islands, U.K. found that when trying to enhance the grazing quality of heathlands by re-seeding (e.g. with high quality grass-seed mixtures) it is better to apply lime, grass-seed and inorganic fertiliser directly to the surface of the ground rather than ploughing and harrowing the ground first, as the latter maintains more natural vegetation hummocks and heather used by the species for nesting (Grant 1992). Re-seeding of heathland with prior ploughing and harrowing may improve feeding conditions for pre-breeding adults however (Grant et al. 1992).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.7. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.3. Shrubland - Boreal
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.1. Grassland - Tundra
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.1. Outer Reef Channel
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.2. Back Slope
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.3. Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.4. Lagoon
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.5. Inter-Reef Soft Substrate
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.6. Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.10. Marine Neritic - Estuaries
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.1. Marine Intertidal - Rocky Shoreline
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.4. Marine Intertidal - Mud Flats and Salt Flats
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.6. Marine Intertidal - Tidepools
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
13. Marine Coastal/Supratidal -> 13.4. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
13. Marine Coastal/Supratidal -> 13.5. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Freshwater Lakes
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.8. Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing:Future ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Unknown  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

Bibliography [top]

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

Delany, S. and Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., and Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Flint, V.E.; Boehme, R.L.; Kostin, Y.V.; Kuznetsov, A.A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Grant, M. C. 1992. The Effects of Re-Seeding Heathland on Breeding Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus in Shetland. I. Nest Distributions. Journal of Applied Ecology 29(2): 501-508.

Grant, M. C.; Chambers, R. E.; Evans, P. R. 1992. The Effects of Re-Seeding Heathland on Breeding Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus in Shetland. II. Habitat Use by Adults During the Pre-Laying Period. Journal of Applied Ecology 29(2): 509-515.

Hayman, P.; Marchant, J.; Prater, A. J. 1986. Shorebirds. Croom Helm, London.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.

Melville, D.S. and Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Sparks, T. H.; Huber, K.; Bland, R. L.; Crick, H. Q. P.; Croxton, P. J.; Flood, J.; Loxton, R. G.; Mason, C. F.; Newnham, J.A.; Tryjanowski, P. 2007. How consistent are trends in arrival (and departure) dates of migrant birds in the UK? Journal of Ornithology 148: 503-511.

Urban, E.K., Fry, C.H. and Keith, S. 1986. The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.

Vähätalo, A. V.; Rainio, K.; Lehikoinen, A.; Lehikoinen, E. 2004. Spring arrival of birds depends on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Avian Biology 35: 210-216.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: wpe.wetlands.org. (Accessed: 17/09/2015).


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Numenius phaeopus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22693178A86585436. . Downloaded on 21 November 2017.
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