Alopecoenas salamonis


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Alopecoenas salamonis
Species Authority: (Ramsay, 1882)
Common Name(s):
English Thick-billed Ground-dove, Thick-billed Ground Dove, Thick-billed Ground-Dove
Gallicolumba salamonis (Ramsay, 1882)
Taxonomic Notes: Alopecoenas salamonis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Gallicolumba.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Symes, A. & Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Dutson, G., Gibbs, D. & James, R.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Dutson, G., Harding, M., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S. & Stattersfield, A.
This species was known from Makira, Solomon Islands, but is now Extinct as a result of predation by introduced species. The last record is a specimen dating from 1927, and searches in 1995 and more recently failed to find it.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Alopecoenas salamonis is known from just two specimens from the Solomon Islands, one from Makira (= San Cristobal) taken in 1882 and the other from Ramos (c.4 ha) in 1927. Although the Makira locality has been queried, it is thought to be valid (D. Gibbs in litt. 1999). Surveys looking for this species on Makira (Buckingham et al. 1995, G. Dutson pers. obs. 1998, D. Gibbs in litt. 1999, R. James in litt. 1999) were unsuccessful. Recent surveys on Ramos also failed to find any individuals and the species was not known to landowners (G. Dutson in litt. 2004). There is now no longer any reasonable doubt that the last individual has died, probably some time ago. It is likely that it once occurred on other islands in the region. It may have been a tramp species of small islands with occasional birds occurring on larger islands, or the two specimens may just represent the last individuals of a declining population (Lees 1991, Buckingham et al. 1995).

Regionally extinct:
Solomon Islands
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The Makira bird was collected at 300 m, although congeners occur in forest at all altitudes. Ramos has drier beach forest than inland Makira and this may have been a preferred habitat-type.

Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is likely to have declined through a combination of predation by introduced cats and rats, and habitat destruction. On Makira, introduced rats, pigs, cats and dogs are widespread. Most lowland forest has been logged or is in logging concessions, and the larger pigeons are targeted by local hunters. Ramos remains forested and appears to be free of introduced predators, although hunters from the adjacent islands of Santa Isabel and Malaita make regular journeys to harvest the nesting Nicobar Pigeon Caloenas nicobarica, and may have shot ground-doves on these expeditions (Buckingham et al. 1995, G. Dutson pers. obs. 1998, D. Gibbs in litt. 1999).

Bibliography [top]

Buckingham, D. L.; Dutson, G. C. L.; Newman, J. L. 1995. Birds of Manus, Kolombangara and Makira (San Cristobal) with notes on mammals and records from other Solomon Islands.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Lees, A. 1991. A protected forests system for the Solomon Islands. Maruia Society, Nelson, New Zealand.

Citation: BirdLife International 2012. Alopecoenas salamonis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 31 August 2015.
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