Triclaria malachitacea 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Triclaria malachitacea (Spix, 1824)
Common Name(s):
English Blue-bellied Parrot, Purple-bellied Parrot
Spanish Loro Ventriazul
Taxonomic Source(s): SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Identification information: 28 cm. Medium-sized, bright green parrot. Male has broad blue belly-patch. Rounded tail. Somewhat large, horn-coloured bill. Pale, bare eye-ring. Female generally paler. Similar spp. Amazona spp. are larger with shorter tails, and female Pileated Parrot Pionopsitta pileata is smaller. Voice Unpatterned thrush-like phrases. In flight, semi-whistled sounds like parakeet.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Foster, A., Gilardi, J. & Kohler, G.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Babarskas, M., Benstead, P., Capper, D., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it is suspected to be in moderately rapid decline owing to habitat loss and, perhaps to a lesser extent, capture for the cage-bird trade.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Triclaria malachitacea occurs mostly in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul, south-eastern Brazil. There are additional records from southern Bahia (none since 1833), Minas Gerais (a few doubtful records), Espírito Santo (four or five sites), Paraná (three modern records) and Santa Catarina (Itajaí Valley, Tijucas Valley and Serra do Mar region, in the north of the state [do Rosário 1996, G. Kohler in litt. 2011]). The species is fairly common in large forest fragments in the Itajaí Valley (G. Kohler in litt. 2011). Because of habitat changes in the Santa Catarina lowlands, most recent records in that state are from montane forests (G. Kohler in litt. 2011). Two records from Misiones, Argentina, require confirmation. The population was formerly estimated at fewer than 5,000 individuals (Lambert et al. 1993), but Bencke (1996) suggested that there may be c.10,000 in Rio Grande do Sul and significant numbers on the east slope of the Serra do Mar; however, the apparent rarity of the species suggests that these figures may be an overestimate (J. Gilardi in litt. 2010). Overall, the population is suspected to be in decline, although in Tres Picos State Park, Rio de Janeiro, it appears to have been stable since c.2003 (A. Foster in litt. 2013).

Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:361000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:11-100Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):300
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is generally described as 'rare' (Stotz et al. 1996), although it is locally common in places.

Trend Justification:  A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat loss and perhaps, to a much lesser extent, capture for the bird trade. The decline is not thought to be more rapid because the species occurs in montane areas where deforestation is typically less severe, it appears to tolerate mature secondary forest, and anecdotal observations suggest it is locally stable, for example in Tres Picos State Park, Rio de Janeiro (A. Foster in litt. 2013).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:UnknownContinuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:2-100Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits lower montane and escarpment forests up to 1,000 m, ranging into lowland forests outside the breeding season. Its preference is for primary or mature secondary growth forests, with a good availability of nesting sites (hollow trees) (G. Kohler in litt. 2011). In Rio Grande do Sul, it nests on flat, ridgeline terrain (possibly an artefact of lowland forest destruction) (Bencke 1998) but, in the Serra do Mar, most records are along valley watercourses. Trichilia claussenii may be an important nest-tree in Rio Grande do Sul, with Eugenia rostrifolia, Alchornea triplinervea and Cupania vernalis frequently possessing suitable natural cavities (Bencke 1998). Nesting occurs from September (October in Rio Grande do Sul) to January (Bencke 1998). It has a varied diet, including palmito palms Euterpe edulis and occasionally maize (Bencke 1996). It is susceptible to fragmentation and appears to require fragments of over 60 ha to persist (Uezu et al. 2005).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):4.4
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is mainly affected by the destruction and modification of its preferred habitats, as well as the removal of juveniles from the nests for sale (G. Kohler in litt. 2011). There has been extensive habitat loss for agricultural conversion, urbanisation and intensive palmito collecting within the species's range. Even the moister valleys in the Serra do Mar are under conversion to banana plantations on the lower slopes. In Rio Grande do Sul, cutting for fuelwood to cure tobacco is fragmenting habitat (Bencke 1996). During the mid-1980s, small numbers were found in international trade. There is some internal trade but the species is rarely recorded in captivity (Bencke 1996, C. Yamashita in litt. 2012).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II and protected under Brazilian law. It has been recorded in at least 14 protected areas in Brazil (Develey 1997), and most recent observations outside Rio Grande do Sul have been in reserves. In Rio Grande do Sul, clearance of native forest is prohibited, fuelwood extraction requires a licence and suitable areas for incorporation in a reserve network have been identified (Bencke 1996). Some preliminary public awareness activities have been undertaken (Bencke 1996).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to quantify the species's population size. Conduct regular surveys to monitor population trends. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation across the species's range. Investigate the true impact of capture for trade. Increase the area of suitable habitat within protected areas, and create a reserve network in Rio Grande do Sul, implemented at the municipal level through land acquisition (Bencke 1996). Initiate a long-term plan for sustainable forest management of tobacco in Rio Grande do Sul (Bencke 1996). Expand public awareness activities at appropriate properties and schools (Bencke 1996).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.2. Unintentional effects (species is not the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

Bibliography [top]

Bencke, G. A. 1996. The ecology and conservation of the Blue-bellied Parrot Triclaria malachitacea in forest fragments in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Bencke, G. A. 1998. Notes on the breeding of Blue-bellied Parrot Triclaria malachitacea. Cotinga 10: 71-78.

Collar, N.J., Gonzaga, L.P., Krabbe, N., Madroño Nieto, A., Naranjo, L.G., Parker, T.A. and Wege, D.C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Develey, P. F. 1997. Ecologia de bandos mistos de aves de Mata Atlântica na Estaçao Ecológica Juréia-Itatins.

do Rosário, L. A. 1996. As aves em Santa Catarina: distribuiçao geográfica e meio ambiente. Glorianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Lambert, F.; Wirth, R.; Seal, U. S.; Thomsen, J. B.; Ellis-Joseph, S. 1993. Parrots: an action plan for their conservation 1993-1998.

Stotz, D.F., Fitzpatrick, J.W., Parker, T.A. and Moskovits, D.K. 1996. Neotropical Birds: Ecology and Conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Uezu, A.; Metzger, J. P.; Vielliard, J.M.E. 2005. Effects of structural and functional connectivity and patch size on the abundance of seven Atlantic Forest bird species. Biological Conservation 123: 507-519.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Triclaria malachitacea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22686419A93110897. . Downloaded on 12 December 2017.
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