Amazona tucumana 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Amazona tucumana (Cabanis, 1885)
Common Name(s):
English Tucuman Amazon, Tucumán Amazon, Tucuman Parrot
Taxonomic Source(s): SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Identification information: 31 cm. Green throughout, with feathers strongly edged black to give scaled effect on head, nape, upper mantle and underparts; no scaling on undertail coverts, lower mantle and wings; forehead and sometimes lores red, bare orbital skin white; lower thighs orange-yellow; undertail coverts with yellowish tinge; primary coverts red; primaries tipped dark blue; tail tipped yellowish. Bill yellowish-horn. Immature has all-green thighs.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Hoyer, R., Maccormack, A., Rivera, L. & Hennessey, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M., Sharpe, C.J., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Khwaja, N.
This species is classified as Vulnerable as it is experiencing a rapid population decline owing to habitat loss and capture for the cagebird trade.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Amazona tucumana is found in north-west Argentina, and southern Bolivia, where it is known from 12 localities in Tarija, Chuquisaca and Santa Cruz departments (A. Maccormick in litt. 2005, R. Hoyer in litt. 2005, L. Rivera in litt. 2012). A recent study of the status and distribution of the species in Argentina recorded 6,015 individuals (Rivera et al. 2007), and estimated the Argentinian population to number c.10,000 bird, but around 20,000 individuals were exported from Argentina in the mid to late 1980s suggesting a substantial population decline may have occurred. After it was placed on Appendix I of CITES in response to this, international trade was effectively cut off, although local exploitation continues. However, it does not seem that populations have recovered, and habitat loss is of concern, particularly in Argentina where it is highly degraded and there are only a few small and isolated woodland remnants (L. Rivera in litt. 2004). Threats to habitat are less severe in Bolivia, but the species has declined there and is projected to continue to do so (A. Maccormick in litt. 2005). The main concentrations of this species in Bolivia occur in Montes Chapeados, Villa Serrano and Tariquía Flora and Fauna National Reserve, with 1,643 individuals recorded at various sites during a recent study (Rivera et al. 2009). A dedicated national population census and monitoring initiative is required to provide an estimate of the Bolivian population and to locate, measure and monitor local populations and post-breeding roosts (A. Maccormick in litt. 2005).

Countries occurrence:
Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:86200
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):1600
Upper elevation limit (metres):2600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:A recent study of the status and distribution of the species in Argentina recorded 6,015 individuals, and estimated the Argentinean population to be approximately 10,000 birds (L. Rivera in litt. 2004). In addition, 1,643 individuals were recorded at various sites in Bolivia during another recent study (Rivera et al. 2007). The total population is thus placed in the band 10,000-19,999 individuals (L. Rivera in litt. 2012). This is equivalent to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  Survey results, observations on habitat loss and the species's local occurrence, and data on capture and trade strongly suggest that its population is undergoing a rapid population decline (L. Rivera in litt. 2011).

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:6000-15000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species inhabits open mountain woodland in Andean yungas forest dominated by pure stands of Alnus acuminata or Podocarpus parlatorei, from 1,600-2,600 m in the breeding season (between November and February). At this time, the species gathers in large flocks, probably including individuals from several breeding localities. Productivity and nesting success varies significantly from year to year, probably related to fruiting events of P. parlatorei, which is a staple food (Rivera et al. 2014). In the non-breeding season, it is present in several protected areas including El Rey National Park, and descends to lower elevations. The main tree species used for nesting and feeding are P. parlatorei, Juglans australis and those in the Myrtaceae family (L. Rivera in litt. 2011, 2012).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):12.30
Movement patterns:Altitudinal Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Around 20,000 individuals were exported from Argentina in the mid to late 1980s (L. Rivera in litt. 2004). In the 1980s, c.5,400 individuals were captured in Bolivia for the international pet trade prior to it being listed by CITES (Rivera et al. 2009). After it was placed on Appendix I of CITES, international trade was effectively cut off, although local exploitation continues at a reduced scale (L. Rivera in litt. 2004, Rivera et al. 2009). Nest-raiding even takes place in protected areas in Bolivia, with whole broods removed from c.50 nests annually in Tariquía Flora and Fauna National Reserve. The species's population in Bolivia has apparently not recovered to its former levels (Rivera et al. 2009). Habitat in Argentina is highly degraded and consists of small, isolated fragments. The species's main nesting and feeding tree species are also targeted for logging by timber operations (L. Rivera in litt. 2011). In Bolivia, the regeneration of suitable forest is limited by burning to maintain extensive cattle grazing. Its habitat is also threatened by slash-and-burn agriculture and wildfires (Rivera et al. 2009, L. Rivera in litt. 2012). It is considered Vulnerable in Bolivia (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua 2009).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I, although the convention is not respected in Bolivia (A. B. Hennessey in litt. 2012). Present in several protected areas including El Rey National Park, Argentina, mostly in the non-breeding season (L. Rivera in litt. 2012). In 2006, Serranía del Iñao National Park and Sustainable Management Area was designated, providing the foundations for actions to conserve one of the species's largest roosts in Bolivia, which is located nearby (Rivera et al. 2009). A species conservation action plan is currently being developed for each of its native countries (L. Rivera in litt. 2012).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Enforce ban on local trade (L. Rivera in litt. 2012). Assess the current population size. Produce a species action plan. Carry out further research to clarify the extent of the current threat from trade. Effectively protect core areas of remaining habitat; review its habitat requirements, and supplement nest sites using boxes where appropriate (A. B. Hennessey in litt. 2012). Tackle unsustainable resource use and illegal activities in protected areas. Designate Montes Chapeados a protected area.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):1-10
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Unknown  
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan

Bibliography [top]

del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J. 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua. 2009. Libro rojo de la fauna silvestre de vertebrados de Bolivia. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua, La Paz, Bolivia.

Rivera, L.; Llanos, R. R.; Politi, N.; Hennessey, B.; Bucher, E. H. 2010. The Near Threatened Tucumán Parrot Amazona tucumana in Bolivia: insights for a global assessment. Oryx 44(1): 110-113.

Rivera, L.; Politi, N.; Bucher, E. H. 2007. Decline of the Tucumán Parrot Amazona tucumana in Argentina: present status and conservation needs. Oryx 41(1): 101-105.

Rivera, L., Politi, N., Bucher, E. H. and Pidgeon, A. 2014. Nesting success and productivity of Tucuman Parrots (Amazona tucumana) in high-altitude forests of Argentina: do they differ from lowland Amazona parrots? Emu 144(1): 41-49.

Rojas, R. E.; Montenegro, P. Y.; Rivera, L. O. 2009. Amazona tucumana . In: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua (ed.), Libro rojo de la fauna silvestre de vertebrados de Bolivia, pp. 387-388. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua, La Paz, Bolivia.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Amazona tucumana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22686246A93104452. . Downloaded on 26 September 2018.
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