|Scientific Name:||Dendrocopos major (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Myanmar; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Viet Nam
Vagrant:Faroe Islands; Gibraltar; Hong Kong; Iceland; Ireland; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 12,900,000-19,300,000 pairs, which equates to 25,800,000-38,600,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.35% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 73,700,000-110,300,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.|
Trend Justification: In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate increase (EBCC 2015). In the short-term (2000-2012) the European population is estimated to have increased (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species uses all kinds of woodland and forest, from pure broadleaved forest to unmixed stands of conifers. It is also common in copses, tree avenues, parks and gardens. It uses olive and poplar (Populus) plantations and up to cedar (Cedrus), pine (Pinus), pine-oak and cork oak (Quercus suber) woods in North Africa. It is found in alder (Alnus) and rhododendron in northern Myanmar and common in deciduous, mixed or coniferous woods and parks in Japan (Winkler et al. 2015). Egg-laying is from mid-April to June (later in the far north and at higher altitudes). The species is monogamous and both sexes excavate a new hole each year, in a dead or living tree of a wide variety of species. Occasionally utility poles are used and nest boxes as well. Clutches can be four to eight eggs but normally five to seven. Its diet is varied and displays clear seasonal changes in more seasonal habitats. It feeds mainly on invertebrates but will also take crustaceans and mussels, coniferous seeds, nuts, acorns, buds, tree sap, berries, fruit and possibly nectar. It is also notorious for taking the eggs and young of other birds. It is mostly resident and dispersive although northern populations are also subject to eruptive migration (Winkler et al. 2015).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||5.2|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Harsh winters can cause significant mortality in this species. Fragmentation of habitat is a threat locally. The Canary Island races canariensis and thanneri are currently probably the most vulnerable, especially the former, which may be at some risk because of human exploitation of Canarian pine forest (Winkler et al. 2015). Air pollution, causing die-back in forests, in central and eastern Europe appears to have mixed effects; where damage is heavy, nesting possibilities, food supply and food quality deteriorate causing a decline in woodpeckers, although the impact of this is unknown. Hybridization is known to occur with Syrian Woodpeckers (Dendrocopos syriacus) (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. Canary Island races canariensis and thanneri are listed on Annex I of the EU Birds Directive. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species.
Conservation Action Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: Protection of areas of Canarian pine from exploitation would help secure this species in the Canary Islands. Research into the long term effects of air pollution on forests in central and eastern Europe is needed in order to determine its impact on this species.
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.
EBCC. 2015. Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme. Available at: http://www.ebcc.info/index.php?ID=587.
Hagemeijer, E.J.M. and Blair, M.J. 1997. The EBCC atlas of European breeding birds: their distribution and abundance. T. and A. D. Poyser, London.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Winkler, H., Christie, D.A. and Kirwan, G.M. 2015. Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Dendrocopos major. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22681124A87323054.Downloaded on 20 August 2018.|
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