|Scientific Name:||Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Anas platyrhynchos and A. fulvigula (incorporating diazi) (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously treated as A. platyrhynchos (incorporating diazi) and A. fulvigula following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Malpas, L.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, hence the species is not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Belize; Bermuda; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; China; Costa Rica; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Greenland; Guam; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iceland; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malaysia; Malta; Mauritania; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Myanmar; Nepal; Netherlands; Nicaragua; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saudi Arabia; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; South Sudan; Spain (Canary Is.); Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Turks and Caicos Islands; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States (Hawaiian Is.); Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Yemen
Introduced:Australia; New Zealand
Vagrant:Antigua and Barbuda; Brunei Darussalam; Cayman Islands; Cook Islands; Djibouti; Dominican Republic; Fiji; Gambia; Gibraltar; Guadeloupe; Jamaica; Kiribati; Mali; Martinique; Niger; Nigeria; Panama; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Senegal; Seychelles; Sri Lanka; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Thailand; Vanuatu; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Zambia
Present - origin uncertain:Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number > c.19,000,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 2,850,000-4,610,000 pairs, which equates to 5,700,000-9,220,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).|
Trend Justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable, fluctuating, decreasing, and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (99.3% increase over 40 years, equating to a 18.8% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: [Butcher and Niven 2007]) and in 2015 the species's abundance was 51% above the long-term average for the period 1955-2014 (Zimpfer et al. 2015). In Europe the population size is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Behaviour In temperate regions breeding populations of this species are sedentary or dispersive, often making local movements during severe weather (Scott and Rose 1996). Other populations are fully migratory (Kear 2005b) with females and juveniles leaving the breeding grounds in the western Palearctic from September and returning as early as February (Kear 2005b). The species breeds between March and June (Madge and Burn 1988) in single pairs or loose groups (del Hoyo et al. 1992) although the exact timing varies with latitude (Madge and Burn 1988). While the females are incubating (Johnsgard 1978) (from mid-May) (Flint et al. 1984, Scott and Rose 1996) the males gather (Madge and Burn 1988) in small flocks and migrate to moulting areas (Flint et al. 1984) where they undergo a flightless moulting period lasting for c.4 weeks (Scott and Rose 1996) (females moult near the breeding grounds) (Flint et al. 1984). Outside of the breeding season the species can be found in small to very large flocks (Madge and Burn 1988) numbering up to several hundreds or even thousands of individuals (Snow and Perrins 1998) especially when moulting (Scott and Rose 1996), on migration (Snow and Perrins 1998) and during the winter (Kear 2005b). The species may also roost both nocturnally and diurnally in communal groups when not breeding (Brown et al. 1982). Habitat The species occurs in almost every wetland type (del Hoyo et al. 1992) although it generally avoids fast-flowing, oligotrophic (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Scott and Rose 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), deep, exposed, rough, rockbound waters and hard unvegetated areas such as rocky ground, sand dunes and artificial surfacing (Snow and Perrins 1998). It requires water less than 1 m deep for foraging (Snow and Perrins 1998) and shows a preference for freshwater habitats (Madge and Burn 1988) although it may frequent shallow brackish waters as long as they provide the cover (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Scott and Rose 1996) of submerged, floating, emergent or riparian vegetation, dense reedbeds or overhanging branches (Snow and Perrins 1998). Habitats commonly frequented include flooded swampy woodlands, seasonal floodlands (Snow and Perrins 1998), wet grassy swamps and meadows, oxbow lakes (Flint et al. 1984), open waters with mudflats, banks or spits, irrigation networks, reservoirs, ornamental waters (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Scott and Rose 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), canals and sewage farms (Snow and Perrins 1998). During the winter the species may also be found in saline habitats along the coast (Madge and Burn 1988) where water is shallow, fairly sheltered and within site of land (Snow and Perrins 1998) (e.g. brackish lagoons [Snow and Perrins 1998], brackish estuaries [del Hoyo et al. 1992, Snow and Perrins 1998] and bays [del Hoyo et al. 1992]). Diet The species is omnivorous and opportunistic (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Snow and Perrins 1998), feeding by dabbling in water and by grazing on the land (Snow and Perrins 1998). Its diet consists of seeds and the vegetative parts of aquatic and terrestrial plants (e.g. crops) (del Hoyo et al. 1992), as well as terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates (especially in the spring and summer) such as insects, molluscs, crustaceans, worms and occasionally amphibians and fish (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Breeding site The nest is a shallow depression (Snow and Perrins 1998) or bowl of vegetation that can be situated in many different locations such as within vegetation on the ground, in natural tree cavities (del Hoyo et al. 1992) up to 10 m high (Africa) (Brown et al. 1982), under fallen dead wood, on tree stumps (Flint et al. 1984), under bushes (Brown et al. 1982) and even in abandoned nests of other species (e.g. herons or crows) (Flint et al. 1984). Nests are generally placed close to water (Kear 2005b) although occasionally they may be some distance away (Madge and Burn 1988). Management information "Extensive" grazing of wetland grasslands (c.0.5 cows per hectare) was found to attract a higher abundance of the species in Hungary (Baldi et al. 2005). Studies in Danish coastal wetlands found that the spatial restriction of shore-based shooting was more successful at maintaining waterfowl population sizes than was the temporal restriction of shooting, and therefore that wildfowl reserves should incorporate shooting-free refuges that include adjacent marshland in order to ensure high waterfowl species diversity (Bregnballe et al. 2004). The cyclical removal of adult fish from an artificial waterbody (gravel pit) in the UK resulted in an increase in invertebrate food availability and an increase in the growth of submerged aquatic macrophytes, which in turn led to an increased use of the habitat for brood rearing by the species (Giles 1994). The removed fish (dead or alive) were sold to generate funds (Giles 1994). The species will also nest in artificial nest boxes (Brown et al. 1982, del Hoyo et al. 1992).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||6.6|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||The species is threatened by wetland habitat degradation and loss from pollution (e.g. petroleum [Grishanov 2006] and pesticide pollution [Kwon et al. 2004]), wetland drainage, peat-extraction, changing wetland management practices (e.g. decreased grazing and mowing in meadows leading to scrub over-growth) and the burning and mowing of reedbeds (Grishanov 2006). The species also suffers mortality as a result of lead shot ingestion (e.g. in Spain [Mateo et al. 1999] and France [Mondain-Monval et al. 2002]) and poisoning from white phosphorous ingestion (from firearms) in Alaska (Steele 1997). It is also susceptible to duck virus enteritis (DVE) (Friend 2006), avian influenza (Melville and Shortridge 2006) and avian botulism (Rocke 2006) so may be threatened by future outbreaks of these diseases (although it may be able to withstand sporadic losses due to its high reproductive potential) (Rocke 2006). The species is predated by American mink Neovison vison in Europe (Opermanis et al. 2001). Utilisation The species is hunted throughout the world (Kear 2005b) mainly for sport (Evans and Day 2002, Bregnballe et al. 2006, Mondain-Monval et al. 2006, Sorrenti et al. 2006), but also for commercial use (food) (Balmaki and Barati 2006). The eggs of this species were (and possibly still are) harvested in Iceland (Gudmundsson 1979).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II. EU Birds Directive Annex II and III. The following information refers to the species's European range only: Extensive grazing of wetland grasslands (c. 0.5 cows per hectare) was found to attract a higher abundance of the species in Hungary (Baldi et al. 2005). Studies in Danish coastal wetlands found that the spatial restriction of shore-based shooting was more successful at maintaining waterfowl population sizes than was the temporal restriction of shooting, and therefore that wildfowl reserves should incorporate shooting-free refuges that include adjacent marshland in order to ensure high waterfowl species diversity (Bregnballe et al. 2004). The cyclical removal of adult fish from an artificial waterbody (gravel pit) in the U.K. resulted in an increase in invertebrate food availability and an increase in the growth of submerged aquatic macrophytes, which in turn led to an increased use of the habitat for brood rearing by the species (Giles 1994). The removed fish (dead or alive) were sold to generate funds (Giles 1994). However, no conservation measures are currently targeted at this species.
Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: The species is not threatened and does not require any immediate conservation action but is likely to benefit from conservation measures implemented for other wetland species.
|Amended reason:||Altered seasonality of occurrence for a country.|
Baldi, A., Batary, B. and Erdos, S. 2005. Effects of grazing intensity on bird assemblages and populations of Hungarian grasslands. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 108: 251-263.
Balmaki, B. and Barati, A. 2006. Harvesting status of migratory waterfowl in northern Iran: a case study from Gilan Province. In: Boere, G., Galbraith, C. and Stroud, D. (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 868-869. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.
Bregnballe, T.; Madsen, J., Rasmussen, P. A. F. 2004. Effects of temporal and spatial hunting control in waterbird reserves. Biological Conservation 119: 93-104.
Bregnballe, T.; Noer, H.; Christensen, T.K.; Clausen, P.; Asferg, T.; Fox, A.D.; Delany, S. 2006. Sustainable hunting of migratory waterbirds: the Danish approach. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 854-860. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.
Brown, L.H., Urban, E.K. and Newman, K. 1982. The Birds of Africa, Volume I. Academic Press, London.
Delany, S. and Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A. and Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Evans, D.M. and Day, K.R. 2002. Hunting disturbance on a large shallow lake: the effectiveness of waterfowl refuges. Ibis 144(1): 2-8.
Flint, V.E.; Boehme, R.L.; Kostin, Y.V.; Kuznetsov, A.A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Friend, M. 2006. Evolving changes in diseases of waterbirds. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 412-417. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, U.K.
Giles, N. 1994. Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula) habitat use and brood survival increases after fish removal from gravel pit lakes. Hydrobiologia 279/280: 387-392.
Grishanov, D. 2006. Conservation problems of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds and their habitats in the Kaliningrad region of Russia. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 356. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, U.K.
Gudmundsson, F. 1979. The past status and exploitation of the Myvatn waterfowl populations. Oikos 32(1-2): 232-249.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).
Johnsgard, P.A. 1978. Ducks, geese and swans of the World. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London.
Kear, J. 2005. Ducks, geese and swans volume 2: species accounts (Cairina to Mergus). Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.
Kwon, Y.K., Wee, S.H. and Kim, J.H. 2004. Pesticide Poisoning Events in Wild Birds in Korea from 1998 to 2002. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40(4): 737-740.
Madge, S.; Burn, H. 1988. Wildfowl. Christopher Helm, London.
Mateo, R., Belliure, J., Dolz, J.C., Aguilar-Serrano, J.M. and Guitart, R. 1998. High prevalences of lead poisoning in wintering waterfowl in Spain. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 35: 342-347.
Melville, D.S. and Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.
Mondain-Monval, J.Y., Defos du Rau, P., Mathon, N., Olivier, A. and Desnouhes, L. 2006. The monitoring of hunting bags and hunting effort in the Camargue, France. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 862-863. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, U.K.
Mondain-Monval, J.Y., Desnouhes, L. and Taris, J.P. 2002. Lead shot ingestion in waterbirds in the Camargue, (France). Game and Wildlife Science 19(3): 237-246.
Opermanis, O., Mednis, A. and Bauga, I. 2001. Duck nests and predators: interaction, specialisation and possible management. Wildlife Biology 7(2): 87-96.
Rocke, T. E. 2006. The global importance of avian botulism. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 422-426. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.
Scott, D. A.; Rose, P. M. 1996. Atlas of Anatidae populations in Africa and western Eurasia. Wetlands International, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Sibley, C.G. and Monroe, B.L. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Sibley, C.G. and Monroe, B.L. 1993. A supplement to 'Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World'. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Sokolov, L. V.; Gordienko, N. S. 2008. Has recent climate warming affected the dates of bird arrival to the Il'men Reserve in the Southern Urals? Russian Journal of Ecology 39: 56-62.
Sorrenti, M., Carnacina, L., Radice, D. and Costato, A. 2006. Duck harvest in the Po delta, Italy. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 864-865. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, U.K.
Steele, B.B., Reitsma, L.R., Racine, C.H., Burson, S.L. III., Stuart, R. and Theberge, R. 1997. Different susceptibilities to white phosphorous poisoning among five species of ducks. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16(11): 2275-2282.
Vähätalo, A. V.; Rainio, K.; Lehikoinen, A.; Lehikoinen, E. 2004. Spring arrival of birds depends on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Avian Biology 35: 210-216.
Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: wpe.wetlands.org. (Accessed: 17/09/2015).
Zimpfer, N.L., Rhodes, W.E., Silverman, E.D., Zimmerman, G.S. and Richkus, K.D. 2015. Trends in duck breeding populations, 1955-2015. Administrative Report - July 2, 2015. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2017. Anas platyrhynchos (amended version of assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22680186A119275821.Downloaded on 21 May 2018.|
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