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Asarcornis scutulata 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Anseriformes Anatidae

Scientific Name: Asarcornis scutulata
Species Authority: (S. Müller, 1842)
Common Name(s):
English White-winged Duck, White-winged Wood Duck
Spanish Pato Almizclero Aliblanco, Pato de Jungla
Synonym(s):
Cairina scutulata (S. Müller, 1842)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Taxonomic Notes: Asarcornis scutulata (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Cairina.
Identification information: 66-81 cm. Large, dark, forest duck with contrasting whitish head and upper neck. Males have mostly dull yellowish bill, blackish mottling on head and upper neck, white lesser and median coverts and inner edges of tertials and bluish-grey secondaries. In flight, white wing-coverts contrast with the rest of the wings. Females are smaller and usually have more densely mottled head and upper neck. Juvenile is duller and browner. Similar spp. Female Comb Duck Sarkidornis melanotos has mostly whitish underparts and all dark wings. Voice Flight call is series of vibrant honks, often ending with nasal whistle. Also single, short, harsh honks. Hints Very secretive, often feeds only at night.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd;C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Choudhury, A., Duckworth, W., Eames, J.C., Mahood, S., Rahmani, A., Yahya, H., Green, A. & Sanjaya, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Taylor, J., Allinson, T, Westrip, J.
Justification:
This forest duck is listed as Endangered because it has a very small and fragmented population which is undergoing a very rapid and continuing decline as a result of the loss of and disturbance to riverine habitats.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Asarcornis scutulata was historically widely distributed from north-eastern India and Bangladesh, through South-East Asia to Java and Sumatra, Indonesia (Green et al. 2005). It has undergone a dramatic decline, such that its population is now estimated at c.1,000 individuals, comprising c.200 in LaosThailandVietnam and Cambodia, c.150 on Sumatra, Indonesia, c.450 in India (Choudhury 2000) and Bangladesh (A. Choudhury in litt. 2007) and in the "low hundreds" in Myanmar (J. C. Eames in litt. 2007) following the identification of a significant population numbering tens of individuals in the proposed Hukaung Tiger Reserve. It has also recently been recorded in Bhutan (Choudhury 2007). It continues to decline throughout its range, and is probably extinct in Malaysia. The only recent records from Vietnam are from watercourses in dry dipterocarp forest in Yok Don NP, where it is rare but probably under-recorded (Eames in litt. 2012). It is likely to be extirpated elsewhere due to widespread forest and wetland destruction. There are no confirmed recent records from Laos, however, a few birds probably survive in the Nam Theun catchment (W. Duckworth in litt. 2012). In Myanmar it is locally common on ox-bow lakes within the Chindwin basin (Tordoff et al. 2007). In India, it has been recorded from Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Manipur (no recent report), with unconfirmed reports from Tripura and Mizoram. Its current distribution is chiefly in the eastern lowlands of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh (A. Rahmani in litt. 2012). 

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Bangladesh; Cambodia; India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
Possibly extinct:
Malaysia
Present - origin uncertain:
Bhutan
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:4120000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:11-100Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):1400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There has not been a comprehensive analysis of recent records, but estimates of c.450 in India (A. Choudhury in litt. 2007), (although it may be lower than this estimate [H. Yahya in litt. 2016]) low hundreds in Myanmar and c.100 in Cambodia (J. C. Eames in litt. 2007) combined with an earlier estimate of 150 in Indonesia suggest that the species's population may precautionarily be considered to lie within the band 250-999 mature individuals. This equates to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend Justification:  This species's population is suspected to have decreased very rapidly owing to the widespread loss, degradation and disturbance of lowland riverine habitats. Resultant small and fragmented populations are susceptible to hunting - opportunistic collection of eggs and chicks - and other stochastic events.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:250-999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:2-100Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Usually found alone or in small groups, the species is most easy to see at dawn and dusk when moving between daytime roosts and the species's feeding sites (Green 1993a, Green et al. 2005). It inhabits stagnant or slow-flowing natural and artificial wetlands, within or adjacent to evergreen, deciduous or swamp forests, on which it depends for roosting and nesting, usually in tree-holes. Although lowlands (below c.200 m) provide optimum habitat, it occurs up to 1,400 m, especially on plateaux supporting sluggish perennial rivers and pools. It has been described as ominvorous (Green et al. 2005), with pondweed, small fish, aquatic snails, spiders and insects being consumed regularly (Green 1993). Breeding season may vary across its range so that hatching coincides with the early wet season, when food supply may be more favourable (Green et al. 2005). The clutch size can vary to quite an extent with a range of 6-13 in captivity and 2-12 in the wild (Mackenzie and Kear 1976, Green 1993a, Green et al. 2005).

Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):7.8
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Its decline is largely attributable to the destruction, degradation and disturbance of riverine (e.g. wetland drainage [Green 1993b]) and forest habitats that this species is dependent on, including the inappropriate management of forests (e.g. forest burning during the dry season [see Green 1993b]). It may be particularly susceptible to loss of large trees with nesting holes (W. Duckworth in litt. 2006). The resultant small, fragmented populations are vulnerable to extinction from stochastic environmental events, loss of genetic variability, disturbance, hunting and collection of eggs and chicks for food or pets. While trade may be more of a local threat to the species, off-take for hunting, which goes relatively unreported, is a far more serious issue (Green 1993b). Hydro-power development, and pollution (see Green 1993b) are other more localised threats. 

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I. The Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust produced, and implements, an action plan for the species. In 1993, 21 protected areas were known to support populations. Dibru-Saikhowa National Park and Dihing-Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary, both in Assam, were established because of its importance for this species, while a significant population is in Nameri National Park (see Das and Deori 2011, A. Choudhury in litt. 2016). Sylvan Heights owns a number of captive breeding birds in the US however, few, if any, reintroduction attempts have been made (Kivi 2010, Sylvan Heights Bird Park). Captive breeding programmes have also taken place at Slimbridge (UK), Bardobi Tea Estate (Assam) and Miao Zoo (Arunachal Pradesh), but the eggs and chicks developed Tuberculosis and so no reintroduction took place (A. J. Green and H. Yahya in litt. 2016). Conservation awareness materials depicting it have been widely distributed in Laos and Cambodia.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys to clarify its distribution and status. Instigate regular monitoring of selected key populations. Promote strict enforcement of hunting regulations and minimise encroachment, disturbance and habitat degradation in all protected areas supporting populations. Campaign for increased protection of peat-swamp forest in Sumatra and moist lowland forest in other range states (A. J. Green in litt. 2016), and provide more effective protection to reduce illegal activities in habitats where this species occurs (Yahya 1994a,b). Campaign against pesticide and oil pollution at key sites in north-east India. Promote more widespread conservation awareness campaigns in and around key protected areas. Rapidly introduce the measures outlined above in newly discovered strongholds, e.g. northern Myanmar. Ensure that captive breeding centres maintain healthy populations of this species, and ensure that diseased individuals are not able to escape and thus potentially spread disease in wild populations (see Yahya 1994a,b).

Amended [top]

Amended reason: Edited Geographic Range, Population Information, Habitats and Ecology and Conservation Actions information text. Also updated the coding of Conservation actions in Place (updated box to show there is an Action Recovery Plan, and updated box with details of ex situ conservation) and Conservation Actions needed. Country presence for one country changed from 'presence uncertain' to 'extant'. Added new references, and new Contributors and Facilitator/Compiler.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
  Systematic monitoring scheme:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.3. Work & other activities
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.11. Dams (size unknown)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Choudhury, A. 2000. The birds of Assam. Gibbon Books and WWF-India, Guwahati, India.

Choudhury, A. 2007. White-winged Duck Cairina (=Asacornis) scutulata and Blue-tailed Bee-eater Merops philippinus: two new country records for Bhutan. Forktail: 153-155.

Collar, N.J. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook 48(1): 7-28.

Das, N.; Deori,S. 2011. Occurrence of White-winged Wood Duck (Cairina scutulata) in forest ecology of Nameri National Park, Assam (India). Tigerpaper 38: 8-16.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Green, A. J. 1993a. The biology of the White-winged Duck Cairina scutulata. Forktail: 65-82.

Green, A. J. 1993b. Status and habitat of the White-winged Duck Cairina scutulata. Bird Conservation International 3: 119-144.

Green, A. J.; Hughes, B.; Callaghan, D. 2005. White-winged Duck Cairina scutulata. In: Kear, J. (ed.), Ducks, geese and swans. Volume 2, pp. 455-459. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org.

Kivi, R. 2010. Species Spotlight: White Winged Duck. web page. Available at: http://www.brighthub.com/environment/science-environmental/articles/15474.aspx. (Accessed: 01/08/2013).

MacKenzie, M. J. S.; Kear, J. 1976. The White-winged Wood Duck. Wildfowl 27: 5-17.

Sylvan Heights Bird Park. White-winged Wood Duck Breeding Program . web page. Available at: http://shwpark.com/white-winged-wood-duck-breeding-program.html. (Accessed: 01/08/2013).

Tordoff, A. W.; Appleton, T.; Eames, J. C.; Eberhardt, K.; Htin Hla; Khin Ma Ma Thwin; Sao Myo Zaw; Sein Myo Aung. 2007. Avifaunal surveys in the lowlands of Kachin State, Myanmar, 2003-2005. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 55(2): 235-306.

Yahya, H. S. A. 1994a. A Survey of the White-winged Wood Duck, Carina scutulata in India. IWRB TWRG Newsletter 5: 7-8.

Yahya, H. S. A. 1994b. Status of the White-winged Wood Duck Cairina scutulata and its conservation priorities in India. British Ecological Society Bulletin 25: 17-22.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2017. Asarcornis scutulata. (amended version published in 2016) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22680064A110103586. . Downloaded on 26 June 2017.
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