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Syrmaticus ellioti 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Galliformes Phasianidae

Scientific Name: Syrmaticus ellioti (Swinhoe, 1872)
Common Name(s):
English Elliot's Pheasant, Chinese Barred-backed Pheasant
Spanish Faisán de Elliot
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information: Male c.80 cm, female c.50 cm. Boldly marked pheasant with long barred tail. Male rich reddish-brown with whitish-grey hood, black throat, white belly and white shoulder and wing-bars, with tail evenly barred rufous and pale grey. Female duller, more greyish-brown, lacks white wing- and shoulder-bars and has shorter tail with indistinct bars. Similar spp. Larger female Reeves's Pheasant S. reevesii has warmer buff head, lacking black throat and red facial skin. Voice Low clucks and chuckles, and a shrill squeal. Hints Display includes audible wing-whirring.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Fellowes, J., He, F., Ping, D., Wei, L. & Zhang, Z.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Calvert, R., Davidson, P., Keane, A., Taylor, J.
Justification:
Despite the presence of habitat loss and hunting as on-going threats, there is no clear evidence that the species is undergoing a dramatic decline. However, it is precautionarily retained as Near Threatened, although further evidence that the species is not declining may lead to further downlisting in the future.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Syrmaticus ellioti is endemic to south-east China, where it has been recorded from Guizhou, Hubei, Anhui, Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Guangxi and Guangdong (BirdLife International 2001). It was believed to be declining rapidly within its highly fragmented habitat and to no longer occur at many former localities (Ding Ping in litt. 2005, Zhang Zhengwang in litt. 2005). However, in recent years its known range has been greatly extended to the west (Ding Ping in litt. 2005, Zhang Zhengwang in litt. 2005) and there have been reports that it is locally common. Surveys in Guangxi and Guandong failed to record the species in or Guandong, and a 2004 survey estimated the population density in Guanshan Nature Reserve, Jiangxi to be 0.063 individuals/ha(Ding Ping in litt. 2005), but other reports suggest it occurs at densities of up to 6 individuals/km2 (Ding Ping in litt. 2005, J. Fellowes in litt. 2007). Considerable survey effort over 20 years in China suggests that the species is relatively widespread and given recent records that have extended the known range and estimated population densities the global population size may exceed 100,000 (even approaching 200,000) individuals (J. Fellowes in litt. 2007; He Fen-qi in litt. 2007, 2010). Furthermore, there appears to be no evidence indicating that the population has undergone dramatic declines (He Fen-qi in litt. 2007, 2010).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
China
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:673000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:11-100Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):200
Upper elevation limit (metres):1900
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Ongoing and extensive survey efforts have led to a global population estimate of c.100,000-200,000 individuals (Fellowes, J. in litt. 2007; He Fen-qi in litt. 2007), while the population in China has been estimated at <c.10,000 breeding pairs (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  Habitat loss was believed to have resulted in a rapid population decline. Clearance of natural forest has been illegal since 1998 and although hunting is also a factor at a local level it seems that what were previously assumed to be rapid population declines are now slower. Although there is no evidence that the population is dramatically declining, a decline of 20-29% over the past three generations is precautionarily suspected.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:Yes
No. of subpopulations:2-100Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It occurs in a wide variety of subtropical forest-types, and sometimes in scrub vegetation between 200 m and 1,900 m. The most important habitats are broadleaf forest (both evergreen and deciduous) and mixed coniferous and broadleaf forest. Its preferred breeding habitat is forest with a tree cover of more than 90%.

Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):5
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Most of the natural forest within its range has been cleared or modified as a result of the demands for agricultural land and timber, but natural forest clearance has been illegal since 1998. Current threats include the burning of forest by man-made hill fires, collection of firewood, and illegal hunting (Liang Wei in litt. 2004).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I. It is a nationally-protected species in China and is listed as Near Threatened on the China Species Red List. There are many protected areas in or near to its range, but most of these are relatively small and isolated, and it is not clear how many contain large enough areas of suitable forest to support viable populations. Guanshan Nature Reserve (Jiangxi) appears to support a significant population. Other protected areas where it has been recorded include Fanjing Shan, Leigong Shan, Qingliangfeng, Wuyanling, Wuyishan, Gutianshan and Jinggangshan Nature Reserves. Guizhou has recently set up two nature reserves in areas where the species is known to occur; one in Rongjiang county and another in Congjiang county (Liang Wei in litt. 2004). The genetic structure of populations in five provinces was recently studied (Jiang et al. 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Develop a robust population monitoring methodology to allow monitoring of key protected areas. Promote conservation education and better law enforcement to prevent illegal logging and poaching in protected areas. Ensure that the species's needs are fully reflected in management plans for key protected areas and that staff are adequately trained. Conduct research to assess its tolerance to disturbance. Consider focussing some research and management resources on the relatively isolated population in Guizhou province (Jiang et al. 2007).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.3. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.2. Unintentional effects (species is not the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.5. Air-borne pollutants -> 9.5.1. Acid rain
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.2. Area-based Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Keane, A.M.; Garson, P.J.; McGowan, P.J. K. in press. Pheasants: status survey and conservation action plan 2005-2009. IUCN and WPA, Gland, Switzerland.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Syrmaticus ellioti. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22679325A92810598. . Downloaded on 18 November 2017.
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