|Scientific Name:||Curcuma pseudomontana|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Romand-Monnier, F. & Contu, S.|
Curcuma pseudomontana is endemic to the Western and Eastern Ghats, of peninsular India. For the purpose of this assessment, C. pseudomontana is considered to occur in Karnataka, Kerala, and Andra Pradesh. This species was reported to be common and abundant in the Western Ghats in the 1950s, however, the population has shrunk due to alarming rates of habitat loss in the region and over-harvesting for the medical trade. The Western Ghats population is noted to have declined by more than 30% over 10 years, due to habitat loss and overcollection (Molur et al. 1997). The species has also been rated as Vulnerable in Ahdhra Pradesh (Eastern Ghats) (Jhadav et al. 2006) and also in the Western Ghats (Karnataka, Kerala) (Molur et al. 1997). Curcuma pseudomontana is therefore currently rated as Vulnerable based on criterion A.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Western and Eastern Ghats, of peninsular India (Tyagi 2005). It is considered to occur in the states of Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh (Prakash and Screeeramulu 1985; Mangaly and Sabu 1987, 1993; Ram Rao et al. 2006). However, there are numerous botanical records of the taxon in the state of Maharashtra (Santapau 1953 a,b; Tiwari and Pradhye 1993; Tetali et al. 2004; Jagtap et al. 2006) and one report of occurrence in Madhya Pradesh (Oomachan 1996). For some authors the species is only distributed along the lower slopes of the Western Ghats (Mangaly and Sabu 1987). According to Mangaly and Sabu (1987) earlier descriptions of C. pseudomontana based on plants from Bombay and Khandala are partly incomplete and do not agree fully with those from Silent Valley in Kerala, the southern part of its distributional range. Collections from Maharashtra are therefore not included in the most recent treatment of this species (Mangaly and Sabu 1987), which this assessment is based on. The taxon has been little collected, although numerous botanical observations are reported (Mangaly and Sabu 1993).|
Native:India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In 1953, this species was reported to be very common and abundant throughout the Western Ghats (Santapau 1953 a,b). There appears to have been a marked reduction in population size and Molur et al. (1997) estimate the reduction to be more than 30% over 10 years. It is reported to be occasional in all the districts of the Eastern Ghats (Ram Rao et al. 2006). The current size of the population is unknown.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial, which is found in usually moist shady places on the fringes of wet forests or grasslands, in riparian areas, at moderately high altitude along the western side of the Western Ghats (Mangaly and Sabu 1987). The taxon occurs both in moist deciduous forest and semi-evergreen forest (Molur et al. 1997). Mycorrhizal associations have been found (Deotare 2003). Curcuma is a taxonomically difficult genus and problematic for plant hunters, herbarium technicians as well as taxonomists (Mangaly and Sabu 1993). This taxon, originally described from the western Ghats, has a confused taxonomy as it closely resembles C. montana for the side corms. Curcuma pseudomontana and C. montana share many common floral and vegetative characters and occur in similar habitats. The inflorescence of C. pseudomontana is lateral in the early part of the rainy season and terminal later in the season. The colour of the coma is variable within the species (Mangaly and Sabu 1987). Molecular marker based genetic diversity analysis have not yet been conclusive on the legitimacy of both taxa as species. A close relook into the morpho-taxonomic traits of the two species is warranted before according a permanent separate status to them (Syamkumar and Sasikumar 2007).|
|Use and Trade:||The genus Curcuma is gaining importance world over as a potential source of new drugs to combat a variety of ailments as the species contain molecules credited with anti-inflammatory, hypocholestraemic, choleratic, antimicrobial, insect repellent, antirheumatic, antifibrotic, antivenomous, antiviral, antidiabetic, antihepatotoxic as well as anticancerous properties (Sasikumar 2005). This species is used in arrowroot powder manufacturing and in local and tribal medicine (Sasikumar 2005, Ravindram et al. 2007). The roots are boiled and eaten and said to be beneficial against leprosy, dysentery, cardiac diseases and general debility (Tyagi 2005). The Savara tribes in the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh use tuber extracts to cure jaundice. Jatapu and Kaya tribes apply warm tuber paste to treat body swellings. Women of Jatapu and Savara tribes eat boiled tubers to increase lactation. Khand tribes apply tuber paste on the head for cooling effect. The Kukus-Mukus eat fresh tubers for blood purification (Jagtap et al. 2006). Warm tuber paste is applied on body swellings and leaves are used as meal plates (Rama Rao 2006). This species is also eaten as food during famines.|
|Major Threat(s):||The main threats to this species come from habitat loss and overcollection. Forest in the region have been largely removed or altered due to felling, clearing and extensive cultivation (tea and coffee plantation), mining, hydro-electric development and an important decline in biodiversity has been observed. The existing forests (ca 7 % of the original cover) are highly fragmented and facing the prospect of increasing degradation. Additional threats to the natural habitats include invasion of exotic species, fires and unrestricted use of agrochemicals near forests (Bawa 2007). Curcuma pseudomontana is used in arrowroot powder manufacturing and in local and tribal medicine (Sasikumar 2005, Ravindram et al. 2007). The taxon is commercially traded as a medicinal plant (Molur et al. 1997). Exploitation of commercially traded medicinal plants for economic gain without any thoughts of their conservation has driven many species close to extinction in the region (Molur et al. 1997, Bawa 2007).|
|Conservation Actions:||This species has been collected within a conservation area, however most records fall outside such areas (also protected areas do not always adequately protect the resident taxa from illegal collections). The taxon is grown in various botanical institutions. The taxon is rated as Vulnerable both in the Eastern and Western Ghats (Molur et al. 1997, Jhadav et al. 2006). In the Western Ghats, a population reduction of over 30% in 10 years was inferred in 1997 (Molur et al. 1997). Taxonomic studies are needed for this species and the current geographic range and population size should be clarified. The resilience of the taxon to anthropogenic disturbance should be investigated as well as other aspects of its biology and ecology. The population of this formerly abundant species has shrunk and samples of seed should be collected as an ex situ conservation measure in order to ensure a wide genetic diversity to use for conservation programmes. An ex situ population which preserves 90% of the genetic diversity of a population for 100 years should be developed and managed (Molur et al. 1997).|
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|Citation:||Romand-Monnier, F. & Contu, S. 2013. Curcuma pseudomontana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 July 2014.|
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