Tragelaphus strepsiceros

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CETARTIODACTYLA BOVIDAE

Scientific Name: Tragelaphus strepsiceros
Species Authority: (Pallas, 1766)
Common Name(s):
English Greater Kudu

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Mallon, D.P. (Antelope Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment)
Justification:
Total population numbers have been estimated at c. 482,000, with about 15% in protected areas and 61% on private land. Population trends are generally increasing in protected areas and on private land and decreasing elsewhere (24%). It therefore does not currently meet the criteria for threatened status or for Near Threatened. The species’ overall status will remain satisfactory as long as it continues to be represented by large, stable or increasing populations on private land and in protected areas in southern and south-central Africa. The high numbers of this species on private land reflect its value as one of Africa’s major trophy animals. The safari hunting industry is therefore very important for ensuring the continued existence of large numbers of Greater Kudu on private land. The status of the northern populations is precarious, and their survival will depend on more effective protection and management.
History:
1996 Lower Risk/conservation dependent (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Historically, the Greater Kudu occurred over much of eastern and southern Africa, from Chad nearly to the Red Sea, south to the Eastern Cape, west to Namibia and north to mid-Angola. While it has disappeared from substantial areas, mainly in the north of its range, it generally persists in a greater part of its former range than other large antelope species, as a result of its secretiveness and its ability to survive in settled areas with sufficient cover. As in the past, it is much more sparsely distributed and less numerous in the northern parts of its range (from northern Tanzania northwards) than further south. The species seems now to be extinct at least in Somalia; there is no recent information on their status in Sudan or Djibouti (East 1999; Owen-Smith in press).
Countries:
Native:
Angola (Angola); Botswana; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Namibia; South Africa; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Possibly extinct:
Djibouti; South Sudan; Sudan
Regionally extinct:
Somalia
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Citing various authors, East (1999) indicates that population estimates are available for many parts of the Greater Kudu’s range, but many of these are based on aerial counts which tend to substantially underestimate this species’ actual numbers. The sum of the available estimates (352,000) is therefore likely to be considerably less than the true total numbers of the species. Population densities estimated from aerial surveys are frequently less than 0.1/km², even in areas where this species is known to be at least reasonably common. Higher densities of 0.2-0.4/km² have been estimated by aerial surveys in some other areas. Ground counts in areas where the Greater Kudu is common have produced population density estimates from 0.3/m² to 4.1/km² (East 1999).

East (1999) estimated a total population of around 482,000 Greater Kudu, with the largest populations found in Namibia, where the species remains widely abundant on private farmland, and South Africa. Population trends are generally stable or increasing on private land and in protected areas in southern and south-central Africa and Tanzania, but show a tendency to decline in other regions.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Preferred habitat includes mixed scrub woodland (it is one of the few large mammals that thrives in settled areas - in the scrub woodland and bush that reclaims abandoned fields and degraded pastures-), acacia, and mopane bush on lowlands, hills, and mountains. Recorded to 2,400 m in Ethiopia (Yalden et al. 1996). Kudu are browsers; they can exist for long periods without drinking, obtaining sufficient moisture from their food, but become water dependent at times when the vegetation is very dry (Owen-Smith in press).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The Greater Kudu is hunted for food and sport. The percentage of animals in offtake from ranching versus wild is not known.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The Greater Kudu’s status is less satisfactory in the northern parts of its range, due to overhunting and habitat loss. However, this does not seem to be affecting the species' overall long-term survival as they remain abundant and well managed in other parts of its range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Greater Kudu are well represented in protected areas, rom southern Tanzania to South Africa, with major populations in parks and reserves such as Ruaha-Rungwa- Kisigo and Selous (Tanzania), Luangwa Valley and Kafue (Zambia), Etosha (Namibia), Moremi, Chobe and Central Kgalagadi (Botswana), Hwange, Chizarira, Mana Pools and Gonarezhou (Zimbabwe) and Kruger and Hluhluwe-Umfolozi (South Africa). It also occurs widely outside protected areas, including large numbers on private farms and conservancies in southern Africa (Namibia, Zimbabwe and South Africa) where it is a mainstay of the trophy hunting industry (East 1999).

In the northern parts of its range, key areas where some of the northern populations appear to have reasonable prospects for long-term survival include Zakouma N.P. (Chad), Awash N.P. (Ethiopia), Baringo, northern Laikipia and Tsavo (Kenya), and Tarangire (Tanzania) (East 1999).

Bibliography [top]

East, R. 1999. African Antelope Database 1999. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Estes, R. D. 1992. The Safari Companion; A guide to watching African mammals. Chelsea Green Pub. Co., Vermont USA.

Owen-Smith, N. In press. Tragelaphus strepsiceros. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Yalden, D. W., Largen, M. J., Kock, D. and Hillman, J. C. 1996. Catalogue of the Mammals of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7. Revised Checklist, zoogeography and conservation. Tropical Zoology 9(1): 73-164.


Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group 2008. Tragelaphus strepsiceros. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 October 2014.
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