|Scientific Name:||Tragelaphus angasii Angas, 1849|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group|
While Nyala have been severely depleted in the past, total population numbers have been estimated at ca. 36,500, with over 80% in protected areas and 10-15% on private land. Population trends are generally stable or increasing. As long as effective protection and management are maintained in the key protected areas for this species and its numbers continue to increase on private land, its status is unlikely to change. Its long-term survival will be further enhanced if the current efforts to rehabilitate the wildlife of areas such as Gorongosa, Banhine and Zinave National Parks, Gaza Province and the Maputo reserve in Mozambique are successful.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The Nyala's natural range comprises south-eastern Africa from the Lower Shire Valley in Malawi through Mozambique and Zimbabwe to eastern South Africa and Swaziland. It has been introduced to Namibia on private land in the northern commercial farming districts. Likewise it does not occur naturally in Botswana, but some of the Tuli block farms in the east have been colonised as a result of the spread of Nyala from populations introduced to farms in the adjacent region of South Africa (East 1999, Anderson 2013). In Swaziland, the species was extinct by the 1950s, but it has been successfully reintroduced.|
Native:Malawi; Mozambique; South Africa; Zimbabwe
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||East (1999) estimated the total population of Nyala to exceed around 32,000 individuals. More recently, Anderson (2013) estimates South Africa alone has at least 30,000, with the largest populations (25,000) in KwaZulu-Natal. There are now more than 1,000 individuals reintroduced (and introduced) to protected areas and ranches in Swaziland (Monadjem 1998). Nyala are still widespread in Mozambique but numbers probably do not exceed 3,000 (Anderson 2013). Zimbabwe has more than 1,000, while numbers in Malawi have declined from 3,000 (East 1999) to about 1,500, most notably in the population in Lengwe National Park (which was originally created especially for this species). Therefore in total 36,500 individuals. Extralimital to the species’ natural range, Namibia has about 250, all on private ranches.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||An inhabitant of dense thickets, forest, and open-thicket woodland mosaic, generally near water. Nyala feed selectively on both the leaves and fruits of woody plants as well as grasses; although they drink daily where water is available, in parts of their range in Mozambique and Zimbabwe they are found where no surface water is present for several months of the year (Anderson 2013).|
|Generation Length (years):||5.5|
|Use and Trade:||Nyala are subject to hunting for meat and as trophies. This demand (especially for adult males by trophy hunters) has lead to the artificial dispersion of Nyala from game reserves in KwaZulu-Natal to other protected areas and private ranches in areas both within and outside of their former distribution (Anderson 2013). In Mozambique Nyala exist at very low densities due to uncontrolled hunting (Anderson 2013).|
|Major Threat(s):||The Nyala disappeared from extensive areas of its former range mainly due to habitat loss to agriculture and cattle grazing, and the combined effects of rinderpest and hunting. However, today they remain relatively widespread both within and outside of their former range. There are no current major threats to Nyala populations, although some protected area populations have undergone declines, notably that in Lengwe National Park (Malawi).|
|Conservation Actions:||Over 80% of the estimated total population occurs in protected areas (East 1999). The major populations survive in South African protected areas in the KwaZulu-Natal Game Reserves of Ndumo, uMkuze and Hluhluwe-Umfolozi, and in Kruger N.P. (East 1999, Anderson 2013). Nyala also occur in substantial numbers on private land (10-15%) in South Africa, including extralimital areas (East 1999). Nyala respond well to protection, to the point where over-population can become a management problem. Efforts to rehabilitate Mozambique’s wildlife offer the prospect that the Nyala may recover its former abundance in areas such as Gorongosa and Banhine National Parks (East 1999).|
|Errata reason:||This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.|
Anderson, J. 2013. Tragelaphus angasii. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), Mammals of Africa. VI. Pigs, Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer, and Bovids, Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.
East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 April 2017).
Monadjem, A. 1998. Mammals of Swaziland. The Conservation Trust of Swaziland and Big Game Parks.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2016. Tragelaphus angasii. (errata version published in 2017) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22052A115165681.Downloaded on 25 September 2017.|
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