|Scientific Name:||Tolypeutes tricinctus (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Miranda, F., Moraes-Barros, N., Superina, M. & Abba, A.M.|
Tolypeutes tricinctus is listed as Vulnerable because of a population decline—estimated to be more than 30% over the last 10-15 years—inferred from ongoing exploitation and habitat loss and degradation. A reassessment is being carried out at the national level in Brazil, which may result an update of the global IUCN Red List assessment for this species.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Tolypeutes tricinctus is endemic to Brazil, where it has been recorded from the states of Bahia, Ceará, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, Piauí, Maranhão (eastern portion), Mato Grosso (extreme central eastern portion), Goiás (extreme north), Minas Gerais (extreme north-west), Tocantins (eastern portion), Paraíba, and Rio Grande do Norte (Oliveira 1995, Anacleto et al. 2006, Oliveira et al. 2007, Zimbres et al. 2012).|
Native:Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Goiás, Maranhão, Minas Gerais, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe, Tocantins)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Tolypeutes tricinctus was believed to be extinct until its rediscovery in 1988 in a handful of scattered localities (Santos et al. 1994). It has probably disappeared over much of its range, but it is difficult to survey its populations (Nowak 1999). This armadillo has a patchy distribution; population densities may be relatively high within certain patches (J. Marinho-Filho pers. comm. 2010), except in areas where the species is exposed to human pressure. Population density has been estimated at 1.2 animals per km2 in the Cerrado (Bocchiglieri 2010), but is expected to be considerably lower in areas with hunting pressure.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Tolypeutes tricinctus mainly occurs in caatinga habitat (dry thorn scrub of north-eastern Brazil), but it is also found in the eastern parts of cerrado habitat (bush savanna in central Brazil). Significant habitat loss has been recorded in its range, especially in the Cerrado. It is not adapted to digging and life underground. When threatened, it has the habit of rolling into an easily portable ball.|
In a study near Jaborandi (Bahia), the mean home range was estimated at 122 hectares, with adult males having significantly larger home ranges (238 hectares) than females (Guimarães 1997). Guimarães (1997) observed an overlap of the home ranges of males and females, as well as of adult males of varying age. In the latter, the overlap was restricted to a small area at the edge of their home ranges.
There are no direct data on wild individuals to be able to estimate generation length for T. tricinctus. This species is rarely kept in captivity, but data from the captive population of the closely related T. matacus in North America indicate a mean generation time for captive individuals as 7.73 years. However, this estimate may be skewed due to management practices (J. Gramieri pers. comm). Generation length for Tolypeutes in the wild is likely to be shorter than for captive individuals. In the absence of more direct life history data, a generation length of 5 years is used here for T. tricinctus.
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||The species is hunted for food.|
|Major Threat(s):||Tolypeutes tricinctus is threatened by heavy hunting pressure and habitat loss. In the Caatinga, the remaining populations are practically isolated in protected areas and are subjected to subsistence hunting. In the Cerrado, the main populations live outside protected areas and are especially threatened by conversion of their natural habitat to sugar cane and soybean plantations.|
Tolypeutes tricinctus has been observed in Serra da Capivara and Serra das Confusões National Parks, both in southern Piauí (Marinho-Filho and Lima 2008). It is present in the Grande Sertão Veredas National Park, northern Minas Gerais (M.L. Lima pers. comm. 2010). It was also recorded in the Ecological Station of Serra Geral do Tocantins and Jalapão State Park (Tocantins), as well as in the Raso da Catarina Biological Reserve and Veredas do Oeste baiano Wildlife Refuge (Bahia; Marinho-Filho and Lima 2008, M.L. Lima pers. comm. 2010). No protected areas exist in the area of highest population density (J. Marinho-Filho pers. comm. 2010).
According to distribution models, less than three percent of the potential range of this species lies within integral protection conservation units, while an additional five percent of its potential range fall within sustainable use conservation units (Zimbres et al. 2012).
Anacleto, T.C.S., Diniz-Filho, J.A.F. and Vital, M.V.C. 2006. Estimating potential geographic ranges of armadillos (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) in Brazil under niche-based models. Mammalia 70(3-4): 202-213.
Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (comps and eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Bocchiglieri, A. 2010. Mamíferos de médio e grande porte em uma área alterada no Cerrado: estrutura da comunidade, sobreposição de nicho e densidade. Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília.
Cardoso da Silva, J.M. and Oren, D.C. 1993. Observations on the habitat and distribution of the Brazilian three-banded armadillo Tolypeutes tricinctus, a threatened Caatinga endemic. Mammalia 57(1): 149-152.
Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Central Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Gardner, A.L. 1993. Order Xenarthra. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomic and geographic reference. Second Edition, pp. 63-68. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Gardner, A.L. 2005. Order Cingulata. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition., pp. 94-99. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Guimarães, M.M. 1997. Area de vida, territorialidade, e dieta do tatu-bola, Tolypeutes tricinctus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) num Cerrado do Brasil Central. Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasilia.
IUCN. 1990. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1986. 1986 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1988. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Machado, P.A.R, Santos, I.B. and Fonseca, G.A.B. da. 1992. Habitos alimentares do tatu-bola do nordeste, Tolypeutes tricinctus (Edentata, Dasypodidae). XIX Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia: 152. Belém, Pará.
Marinho-Filho, J. and Reis, M.L. 2008. Tolypeutes tricinctus Linnaeus 1758. In: Ministério do Meio Ambiente (ed.), Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de Extinção, Brasilia.
Marinho-Filho, J., Guimarães, M., Reis, M.L., Rodrigues, F., Torres, O. and Almeida, G. 1997. The discovery of the Brazilian three-banded armadillo in the Cerrado of Central Brazil. Edentata 3: 11-13.
Marini-Filho, O.J. and Guimarães, M.M. 2010. Comportamento sexual de tatu-bola (Tolypeutes tricinctus, Dasypodidae). Edentata 11(1): 76-77.
Nowak, R.M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA and London, UK.
Oliveira, T.G. 1995. The Brazilian three-banded armadillo Tolypeutes tricinctus in Maranhão. Edentata 2: 18-19.
Oliveira, T.G., Gerude, R.G. and Silva Júnior, J.S. 2007. Unexpected mammalian records in the state of Maranhão. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi. Ciências Naturais 2(2): 23-32.
Reis, M.L., Bocchiglieri, A., Homes, R.M., Bragança, J., Marques, M.P. and Lobo, C.E.C. 2005. Estudo da População de tatu-bola Tolypeutes tricinctus da fazenda Jatobá/BA. III Congresso Brasileiro de Mastozoologia. Santa Cruz/ES.
Reis, M.L., Coelho, D.C., Pereira, D.F., de Carvalho, I.H., Nunes, M.L.A, Simon, M.F. and Braz, V.S. 2002. Relatório de Fauna. In: M.B. Arruda and M. von Behr (eds), Jalapão, Expedição Científica e Conservacionista, pp. 29-44. IBAMA, Brasília.
Sanborn, C.C. 1930. Distribution and habits of the three-banded armadillo (Tolypeutes). Journal of Mammalogy 11(1): 61-69.
Santos, I.B. 1993. Bionomia, distribuição geográfica e situação atual do tatu-bola Tolypeutes tricinctus (Linné, 1758) (Dasypodidae, Mammalia) no Nordeste do Brasil. Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
Santos, I.B., Fonseca, G.A.B. da, Rigueira, S.E. and Machado, R.B. 1994. The rediscovery of the Brazilian three-banded armadillo and notes on its conservation status. Edentata 1: 11-15.
Superina, M., Pagnutti, N. and Abba, A.M. 2014. What do we know about armadillos? An analysis of four centuries of knowledge about a group of South American mammals, with emphasis on their conservation. Mammal Review 44: 69-80.
Thornback, J. and Jenkins, M. 1982. The IUCN Mammal Red Data Book. Part 1: Threatened mammalian taxa of the Americas and the Australasian zoogeographic region (excluding Cetacea). IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Wetzel, R.M. 1982. Systematics, distribution, ecology, and conservation of South American edentates. In: M.A. Mares and H.H. Genoways (eds), Mammalian biology in South America, pp. 345-375. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Wetzel, R.M. 1985. Taxonomy and distribution of armadillos, Dasypodidae. In: G.G. Montgomery (ed.), The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths, and vermilinguas, pp. 23-48. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Zimbres, B.Q.C., Aquino, P.P.U., Machado, R.B., Silveira, L., Jácomo, A.T.A., Sollmann, R., Tôrres, N.M., Furtado, M.M. and Marinho-Filho, J. 2012. Range shifts under climate change and the role of protected areas for armadillos and anteaters. Biological Conservation 152: 53-61.
|Citation:||Miranda, F., Moraes-Barros, N., Superina, M. & Abba, A.M. 2014. Tolypeutes tricinctus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T21975A47443455.Downloaded on 23 March 2018.|