|Scientific Name:||Tetracerus quadricornis (de Blainville, 1816)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable C2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group|
The population is estimated at less than 10,000 mature individuals. Based on loss of forest habitat, there is a continuing inferred and projected population decline and no subpopulation is estimated to contain more than 1,000 mature individuals. The species is not well studied and much more information is needed on distribution at the fine scale, population size and density. It is possible that it is already close to reaching Endangered status.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The Four-horned Antelope is distributed widely, but in scattered populations, over most of India, from the Himalayan foothills to peninsular India (Rahmani 2001); a few may remain in lowland Nepal. Sharma et al. (2007) recorded recent presence at 122 points and said that most local extinctions had occurred north of the Gangetic plains and in Maharashtra.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||No robust values of the current global population are available, but in 2001 numbers were estimated at >10,000 individuals, ca 7,000 mature individuals (Mallon and Kingswood 2001). Densities are generally low (0.2-2.05 individuals/km²) and vary depending on habitat conditions, competition with domestic livestock, predation, and degree of protection (Leslie and Sharma 2009). Baskaran et al. (2009) estimated 0.88/km² in Mudumulai, southern India and said numbers appeared to be low. The species does not appear to be common anywhere within its range.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Four-horned Antelopes are restricted to forest habitats and grassland margins, and mostly occur in open, dry deciduous mixed forests in undulating or hilly areas and never far from water; they are solitary and browse and graze (Rahmani 2001, Sharma 2006, Sharma et al. 2007, Leslie and Sharma 2009).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||4.1|
|Use and Trade:||Because of its unique set of horns, this species has been prized as a hunting trophy (Nowak 1999). It is eaten in India and Nepal, but is reportedly not as palatable as other antelopes (Nowak 1999). However, hunting is not a very widespread activity within India|
|Major Threat(s):||The major threat to the species is habitat destruction, through the clearance of scrub and forest for agriculture, leading to direct habitat loss and lack of connectivity between protected areas; with the compounding effects of hunting and competition with livestock (Nowak 1999, Ravan et al. 2005).|
|Conservation Actions:||The species occurs in many protected areas in India (for example, Gir N.P., Panna N.P., Pench N.P., and Kanha Tiger Reserve). It is totally protected by law on Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. It is listed on CITES Appendix III (Nepal only).|
Baskaran, N., Desai, A.J. and Udhayan, A. 2009. Population distribution and conservation of four-horned antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis) in the tropical dry fores of southern India. J. Sci. Trans. Environ. Technov. 2: 139-144.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).
Leslie Jr., D. M. and Sharma, K. 2009. Tetracerus quadricornis (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Mammalian Species 843: 1-11.
Mallon, D.P. and Kingswood, S.C. 2001. Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Nowak, R.M. (ed.) 1999. Walkers Mammals of the World. Sixth edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.
Rahmani, A.R. 2001. India. In: D.P. Mallon & S.C. Kingswood (ed.), Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Global Survey and Rgeional Action Plans, pp. 178-187. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Ravan, S., Dixit, A.M. and Mathur, V.B. 2005. Spatial analysis for identification and evaluation of forested corridors between two protected areas in Central India. Current Science 88(9): 1441-1448.
Sharma, K. 2006. Distribution, status, ecology, and behavior of the four-horned antelope Tetracerus quadricornis). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Mumbai, Mumbai, India.
Sharma, K., Rahmani, A.R. and Chundawat, R.S. 2007. Ecological study on the four-horned antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis) in a tropical dry forest. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2017. Tetracerus quadricornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T21661A50195368.Downloaded on 17 October 2017.|
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