|Scientific Name:||Tarsius sangirensis|
|Species Authority:||Meyer, 1897|
Niemitz (1984) synonymized three of Hill’s (1955) Tarsius spectrum subspecies (the forms sangirensis, dentatus, and pelengensis) with T. s. spectrum. Feiler (1990) argued for the resurrection of T. sangirensis as a distinct species, an opinion that was independently supported by Shekelle et al. (1997) and Groves (1998). See Groves (2003).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(ii,iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Shekelle, M. & Salim, A.|
|Reviewer/s:||Merker, S. & Rylands, A.B.|
Listed as Endangered as Tarsius sangirensis is known only from Sangihe Island which is 547 km², its range is severely fragmented, and there is ongoing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat.
|Range Description:||This species is currently recorded as being found on Sangihe island, north of Sulawesi, Indonesia (Riley 2002).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Shekelle and Salim (2009) used remote sensing to estimate the population size to be between 1,505 and 52,734 individuals, the very wide range being a result of uncertainty in the suitability of "brush" habitat for sustainable tarsier populations. Without including "brush", the population size estimate is only 1,505–2,795 individuals. Riley (2002) estimated population size as 9,000–15,600, but those numbers drop to 300-500 if secondary habitat is excluded. Riley did not address the issue that, while tarsiers are recorded in secondary habitats, these might not support sustainable populations. Thus, the conclusions of both studies are similar; viable population size might be very small indeed, unless populations in suboptimal habitats are "sources" and not "sinks".|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This population has not been studied systematically in the wild, but was surveyed by Shekelle and associates (Shekelle et al. 1997, Shekelle 2003) and Riley (2002). Riley remarked that T. sangirensis has a preference for primary forest, but may occur in secondary habitats including sago swamps, scrub, nutmeg plantations, coconut plantations, and secondary forest growth. These results are similar to those of Shekelle and associates, except that Shekelle did not encounter any in primary forest, and Shekelle and Salim (2009) indicate that it is very unlikely that any primary forest now remains on the island. A study of Tarsius dentatus on Sulawesi by Merker et al. (2005, also Merker and Yustian 2008) showed that they were able to occupy agricultural land as long there were remnant patches of forest or dense shrubbery, although group sizes were smaller and population densities were considerably lower (less than half) than was found for virtually undisturbed old-growth forest (estimated densities 268 individuals/km² vs. 45 individuals/km²).
Like other Eastern Tarsier species from the Sulawesi biogeographic region, this species lives in small, monogamous or polygamous groupings of 2–6. It might sleep in dispersed social groups, particularly in disturbed habitat, and that this might be a response to predation, particularly by humans and human commensals, such as feral cats and dogs. Merker (2006) studied home range size in T. dentatus and found it to vary, depending on the degree of human disturbance, with home range size increasing with the degree of disturbance. Its diet is mostly large arthropods and some small vertebrates.
Shekelle and Salim (2009) argue that the chief threat to tarsiers on Sangihe Island is habitat loss. One major driver of habitat loss is the clearing of forests and forest gardens for more intensive agriculture where underbrush is cleared, such as coconut monocrop, coconut/chocolate, nutmeg, and others (M. Shekelle pers. comm. 2010). Riley (2002), however, did not think that habitat loss was a major threat, given their presence in a variety of secondary habitats. This discrepancy emphasizes the need to determine the suitability of secondary habitats for sustainable tarsier populations. The volcano on Sangihe Island, Mt Awu, is active and one of the deadliest in Indonesia, and the human population density on the island is very high (260 people km-²) (Shekelle and Salim 2009). There is practically no primary forest left and there are no protected areas in its range (Shekelle and Salim 2009).
The taxon has been protected by national law since 1931, and is listed in CITES Appendix II. Two conservation initiatives begun in 2002 are serving to establish management systems on this archipelago and to educate its people on the environmental and conservation problems that the islands face, including those resulting from forest management and hunting (Riley 2002) (see Whitten 2006).
Feiler, A. 1990. Über die Säugetiere der Sangihe- und Talaud-Inseln - der Beitrag A.B. Meyers für ihre Erforschung (Mammalia). Zoologische Abhandlungen Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden 46: 75-94.
Groves, C.P. 1998. Systematics of tarsiers and lorises. Primates 39(1): 13-27.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C.P. 2003. The tarsiers of Sulawesi. In: P.C. Wright, E.L. Simons and S. Gursky (eds), Tarsiers: Past, Present, and Future, pp. 179-195. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.
Hill, W. C. O. 1955. Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy. II. Haplorhini: Tarsioidea. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, Scotland.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 16 June 2011).
Merker, S. 2006. Habitat-specific ranging patterns of Dian’s tarsiers (Tarsius dianae) as revealed by radiotracking. American Journal of Primatology 68(2): 111 – 125.
Merker, S. and Yustian, I. 2008. Habitat use analysis of Dian’s tarsier (Tarsius dianae) in a mixed-species plantation in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Primates 49: 161-164.
Merker, S., Yustian, I. and Muhlenberg, M. 2005. Responding to forest degradation altered habitat use by Dian’s tarsier Tarsius dianae in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Oryx 39(2): 189–195.
Niemitz, C. 1984. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Tarsius Storr, 1780. In: C. Niemitz (ed.), Biology of Tarsiers, pp. 1–16. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, New York, USA.
Shekelle, M. 2003. Taxonomy and Biogeography of Eastern Tarsiers. Doctoral Thesis, Washington University.
Shekelle, M. and Salim, A. 2009. An acute conservation threat to two tarsier species in the Sangihe Island chain, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Oryx 43: 419-426.
Shekelle, M., Leksono, S. M., Ichwan, L. L. S. and Masala, Y. 1997. The natural history of the tarsiers of North and central Sulawesi. Sulawesi Primate Newsletter 4(2): 4-11.
Whitten, T. 2006. Cerulean paradise-flycatcher not extinct: subject of first cover lives. Conservation Biology 20: 918-920.
|Citation:||Shekelle, M. & Salim, A. 2011. Tarsius sangirensis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 December 2013.|
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