|Scientific Name:||Taphozous perforatus|
|Species Authority:||É. Geoffroy, 1818|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Simmons (2005) recognized three subspecies: Taphozous perforatus haedinus Thomas, 1916; T. p. sudani Thomas, 1915; and T. p. senegalensis Desmarest, 1820.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Kock, D., Sami Amr, Z., Mickleburgh, S., Hutson, A.M., Bergmans, W. & Molur, S.|
|Reviewer/s:||Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Cox, N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||The Egyptian tomb bat occurs widely throughout northern and sub-Saharan Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and Asia, east to the Indian Subcontinent. In sub-Saharan Africa, records extend along the Nile and east to Ethiopia and northern Somalia, and west to Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Benin, Niger, and northern Nigeria, and south to Kenya (including Lamu island), Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zimbabwe, and Botswana. In southwest Asia, it has been recorded from Israel, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Oman. In South Asia, this species is presently known to be widely distributed from southern Pakistan (Roberts 1997) and western India (Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan) (Bates and Harrison 1997, Molur et al. 2002) and recently reported from central Eastern Ghats in Andhra Pradesh (Chakraborty et al. 2004). It has been recorded up to 200 m.|
Native:Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea-Bissau; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Israel; Kenya; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Somalia; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Yemen; Zimbabwe
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is common in parts of its African range, but is less common elsewhere. It is found in small colonies (between six to eight individuals) in the southern African subregion (Skinner and Chimimba 2005). In South Asia the abundance, population size and trends for this species are not known, and the species has only been recorded from a few localities (Bates and Harrison 1997).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is associated throughout its range with open woodland, avoiding forest, semi-desert and desert areas. It tends to be found along rivers in wooded savanna. It requires the shelter of rocks or stone buildings in which to roost during the day (Skinner and Chimimba 2005). In the Arabian Peninsula animals have been recorded roosting in castles, forts, deep caverns and sea caves, with animals foraging among palm groves and gardens (Harrison and Bates, 1991). In South Asia this species is found in arid climes and prefers tropical thorn forests. It roosts in small to large colonies ranging from a few individuals to thousands of individuals in caves, darker areas of old forts, mosques, large old wells, artificial tunnels, old disused buildings, and shares its roost with Rhinopoma spp. It feeds on moths and beetles (Bates and Harrison 1997).|
|Major Threat(s):||Human disturbance has been highlighted as a threat to the Egyptian tomb bat, but overall it is unlikely that this species is significantly threatened across its very wide range. In South Asia it is threatened by clearing of thorn forests for agricultural purposes, from mining and stone quarrying. Roost disturbance due to human interference and development of old buildings for tourism purposes is also considered serious threats (C. Srinivasulu pers. comm., Molur et al. 2002).|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is present in many protected areas, and no direct conservation measures are currently needed for the species as a whole. The species has not been recorded from any protected areas in Pakistan or India. Being a poorly understood species in the region, more studies on distribution, abundance, reproduction and ecology are recommended (Molur et al. 2002).|
Bates, P. J. J. and Harrison, D. L. 1997. Bats of the Indian Subcontinent. Harrison Zoological Museum, Sevenoaks, England, UK.
Bates, P. J. J., Harrison, D. L. and Mundi, M. 1994. The bats of western India revisited. Part 2. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 91: 224-240.
Chakraborty, S., Bhattacharyya, T. P., Dey, J. K., Ghosh, M. K., Chakraborty, T. K. and Poddar, A. K. 2004. Mammals. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, India.
Happold, D. C. D. 1987. The Mammals of Nigeria. Oxford University Press, London, UK.
Harrison, D. L. and Bates, P. J. J. 1991. The Mammals of Arabia. Harrison Zoological Museum, Sevenoaks, UK.
Hayman, R. W. and Hill, J. E. 1971. Order Chiroptera. In: J. Meester and H. W. Setzer (eds), The Mammals of Africa: An Identification Manual, pp. 73. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C., USA.
Kingdon, J. 1974. East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. Academic Press, London, USA.
Meester, J. A. J., Rautenbach, I. L., Dippenaar, N. J. and Baker, C. M. 1986. Classification of southern African mammals. Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, South Africa.
Molur, S., Marimuthu, G., Srinivasulu, C., Mistry, S. Hutson, A. M., Bates, P. J. J., Walker, S., Padmapriya, K. and Binupriya, A. R. 2002. Status of South Asian Chiroptera: Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (C.A.M.P.) Workshop Report. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India.
Rathbun, G.B. (subeditor). 2005. Macroscelidea. In: Skinner, J. D. and Chimimba, C. T. (eds), The mammals of southern Africa subregion, 3rd edition, pp. 813 pp.. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Roberts, T. J. 1977. The Mammals of Pakistan. Ernest Benn, London, UK.
Rosevear, D. R. 1965. The Bats of West Africa. British Museum, London, UK.
Simmons, N. B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Srinivasulu, C., Srinivasulu, B. and Sinha, Y. P. In press. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of South Asia: Biogeography, diversity, taxonomy and distribution. Journal of Threatened Taxa.
Taylor, P. J. 2000. Bats of Southern Africa: Guide to Biology, Identification, and Conservation. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
|Citation:||Kock, D., Sami Amr, Z., Mickleburgh, S., Hutson, A.M., Bergmans, W. & Molur, S. 2008. Taphozous perforatus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 05 December 2013.|
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