Sylvicapra grimmia 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Sylvicapra grimmia
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Common Duiker, Bush Duiker, Grey Duiker

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Mallon, D.P. (Antelope Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment)
Listed as Least Concern as the species is widespread and common, with a total population size in the millions. Despite localised declines, the Common Duiker should continue to exist in large numbers over much of its current range for the foreseeable future. Its overall conservation status is unlikely to change.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Common Duiker is one of the most widely distributed antelopes on the African continent, occurring throughout the savanna woodland zones of sub-Saharan Africa, and in spite of dense human populations in many areas its historical distribution has remained largely unchanged.
Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola); Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Lesotho; Malawi; Mali; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Possibly extinct:
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: East (1999) indicated that aerial surveys generally produce estimates of population density in the range 0.01-0.15/km², but that these surveys underestimate numbers of this small, secretive species by a large but unknown factor. Ground surveys in areas where the Common Duiker is common often produce density estimates of the order 0.3-1.7/km². Wilson (2001) summarizes some recorded densities of Common Duiker from various localities in Africa in different vegetation types using line transects.

East (1999) proposed an estimated total population of 1,660,000. This is probably a very conservative figure, and Wilson (in press) suggested it was more likely to be in the order of 10 million. The population trend is probably stable over extensive parts of the species’ range, but decreasing in areas where hunting pressures are extremely high and in marginal parts of its range such as Gabon and Niger.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Found south of the Sahara, virtually everywhere there is cover, except in rainforest and desert. Typically a savanna woodland species, but often found in relatively open country and even extends into the alpine zone in some mountainous areas such as on Mt. Kenya and Mt. Kilimanjaro (Wilson in press). It shows a high level of adaptability to habitat modifications caused by the spread of agricultural settlement, and it frequently survives in good numbers wherever there is low secondary growth. They have a very varied diet of foliage, herbs, fruits, seeds, and cultivated crops (Wilson in press).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): While there are localized declines in places with very intense hunting, the Common Duiker does not seem to have any serious threats to its survival. Its resiliency to hunting, and adaptability, have enabled it to persist widely in human- dominated landscapes, often in close proximity to settlement.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The Common Duiker is well represented in a large number of protected areas from Senegal to South Africa, and is also well represented on private land.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Marginal  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Marginal  
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability: Suitable  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

East, R. 1999. African Antelope Database 1999. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Wilson, V. J. 2001. Duikers of Africa: Masters of the African Forest Floor. Directory Publishers, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

Wilson, V. J. 2013. Sylvicapra grimmia. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2008. Sylvicapra grimmia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T21203A9255742. . Downloaded on 26 June 2016.
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