|Scientific Name:||Suboestophora hispanica|
|Species Authority:||Gude, 1910|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Gomez, B., Arrébola, J., Lutz, M.L., Nichols, C., Cuttelod, A. & Neubert, E.|
This species is endemic to the provinces of Alicante and Valencia in Spain. It has an extent of occurrence of 1200 km2, an area of occupancy of 500 km2 and is found at 3 locations. The major threats (ongoing and future) facing this species are fires and urban expansion (housing). An additional potential threat comes from increased tourism to caves, therefore tourism in this habitat should be regulated. Due to the small number of locations and plausible future threats to this species it has been assessed as Vulnerable (VU D2). If the level of threats was increasing and the quality of habitat started to decrease significantly, then the species would qualify for a higher threat category.
This species is endemic to Spain where it is found in the provinces of Alicante and Valencia. It is only known from Vall de Ebo in Alicante province, and the southern part of Valencia province (Puente 1994; Martínez-Ortí, 1999, 2007; Martínez-Ortí and Robles 2003).
Native:Spain (Spain (mainland))
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
There are no population studies of this species, but densities seem to be low. The population is probably decreasing due to frequent summer fires.
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species lives under stones, trunks and humus, and is found in pine and evergreen oak forests and Mediterranean shrubs. It occurs up to and altitude of 400 m, as well as in caves up to a depth of 45 m.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is collected for shell specimens.|
|Major Threat(s):||The main threat to this species is from fires. Other potential threats include quarrying, urban expansion, extension of roads, temperature extremes, drought and collecting of shells.|
|Conservation Actions:||The main conservation action required recommended for this species is the protection of its habitat and the known populations. Currently all caves in Valencia are protected and almost all of the subpopulations are found in protected areas (caves or regional parks), so enforcement of associated legislation of these is recommended. In addition to habitat protection a plan of conservation is considered to be necessary.|
Gude, G.K. 1910. Description of new species of Helicodonta from Spain. Proceed. Mal. Soc. London 9: 124.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 16 June 2011).
Martínez-Ortí, A. 1999. Moluscos Terrestres Testáceos de la Comunidad Valenciana. Biología Animal, Valencia.
Martínez-Ortí, A. 2007. Mollusca. Invertebrados Endemicos de la Comunitat Valenciana: 57-79.
Martínez-Ortí, A. and Puente, A.I. 2006. Suboestophora hispanica. In: J.R. Verdú and E. Galante (eds), Libro Rojo de los Invertebrados de España, pp. 402. Ministero de Medio Ambiente, Madrid.
Martínez-Ortí, A. and Robles, F. 2003. Moluscos Continentales de la Comunidad Valenciana. Conselleria de Territori i Habitatge. Genrealitat Valenciana, Valencia.
Puente, A.I. 1994. Estudio taxonómico y biogeográfico de la superfamilia Helicoidea Rafinesque, 1815 (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Stylommatophora) de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea.
|Citation:||Martínez-Ortí, A. 2013. Suboestophora hispanica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 March 2015.|
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