Sturnira lilium 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Phyllostomidae

Scientific Name: Sturnira lilium
Species Authority: (É. Geoffroy, 1810)
Common Name(s):
English Little Yellow-shouldered Bat
Taxonomic Notes: Subgenus Sturnira. Includes angeli and paulsoni.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Barquez, R., Perez, S., Miller, B. & Diaz, M.
Reviewer(s): Medellín, R. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
This species is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, it occurs in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Lesser Antilles; Sonora and Tamaulipas (Mexico) south to Bolivia, Paraguay, Northern Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil; Trinidad and Tobago; Grenada (Simmons 2005). Not present in highlands above 1,600 m, usually below 800 m (Samudio pers. comm.).
Countries occurrence:
Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Aruba; Barbados; Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Dominica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Honduras; Martinique; Mexico (Sonora, Tamaulipas); Montserrat; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Trinidad and Tobago; Uruguay; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Very abundant.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is one of the most abundant and widespread phyllostomids, and may be found from rainforests to dry or mountain forests (Gannon et al. 1989). Contrary to the general pattern observed in its subfamily, Stenodermartinae, whose members have a general preference for fruits of Moraceae and Cecropiaceae (Nowak 1999), S. lilium feeds mainly on fruits of Solanaceae. Despite this dietary preference, Mello (2006) listed 28 families and 83 species of plants in the diet of S. lilium, based on Geiselman et al. (2002) and his own study. There are two reproductive seasons a year in this species, concentrated between the warm-rainy season and the beginning of the dry seasons, and strong evidences of post-partum estrus (Mello 2006). Adult males present a shoulder-gland, which produces a characteristic scent and is related to reproductive activity (Gannon et al. 1989). There are some evidences for seasonal altitudinal migration in S. lilium in the mountains of Argentina (Giannini 1999) and Brazil (Mello 2006). During 10 days in the study by Mello (2006), individuals of S. lilium used areas from 1.31 to 13.67 ha, and foraging patterns evidence that these bats are efficient seed dispersers of Solanaceae.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): None known.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Found in all protected areas of Central America.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education

Bibliography [top]

Gannon, M. R., Willig, M. R. and Jones, Jr., J. K. 1989. Sturnira lilium. Mammalian Species 333: 1-5.

Geiselman, C.K., Mori, S.A. and Blachard, F. 2002. Database of neotropical bat/plant interactions. Available at: (Accessed: 15 December).

Giannini, N. 1999. Selection of diet and elevation by sympatric species of Sturnira in an Andean rainforest. Journal of Mammalogy 80: 1186–1195.

Mello, M.A.R. 2006. Interações entre o morcego Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) e plantas da familia Solanaceae. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas.

Nowak, R.M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA and London, UK.

Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Citation: Barquez, R., Perez, S., Miller, B. & Diaz, M. 2008. Sturnira lilium. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T20953A9238873. . Downloaded on 30 May 2016.
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