Stenoderma rufum


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Stenoderma rufum
Species Authority: Desmarest, 1820
Common Name(s):
English Red Fruit Bat

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2008-07-01
Assessor(s): Rodriguez, A. & Dávalos, L.
Reviewer(s): Medellín, R. & Schipper, J.
This species is listed as Vulnerable in light of an ongoing population reduction and small geographic range. The species extent of occurrence if <20,000 km², it occurs in five locations and is declining due to habitat less.
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known from Puerto Rico (main island and Vieques), and US Virgin Islands (St. Thomas, St. John, St. Croix) (Simmons 2005).
Puerto Rico; Virgin Islands, U.S.
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is rare in the US Virgin Islands (no specimens taken in the last 30 years) (Gannon et al. 2005). In Puerto Rico it is uncommon; apparently it is most common in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (Gannon et al. 2005).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The habitat in which this species occurs often is dry arborescent vegetation (Genoways and Baker 1972). This species is poorly known. Only the population in the Luquillo Mountains has been studied extensively, and almost all knowledge of its natural history comes from animals living there. It is primarily a frugivore; the most commonly eaten fruits are from the trumpet tree, bullet-wood, and sierra palm, and there is not evidence that it eats figs. It is solitary and roost among the leaves of the forest canopy. This bat frequently changes its roosting location, and sites are seldom occupied more than once. Home range is small, about 2.5 hectares on average. Pregnant females have been captured on Puerto Rico in January, March, June, July and August, and lactating bats are known from March, May, June, and July (Gannon et al. 2005).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by human disturbance and hurricanes.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: S. rufum is found in protected areas across its range.

Bibliography [top]

Gannon, M. R., Kurta, A., Rodriguez-Duran, A. and Willig, M. R. 2005. Bats of Puerto Rico. Texas Tech University Press.

Genoways, H. H. and Baker, R. J. 1972. Stenoderma rufum. Mammalian Species 18: 1-4.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: (Accessed: 10 November 2011).

Simmons, N. B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Citation: Rodriguez, A. & Dávalos, L. 2011. Stenoderma rufum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 03 September 2015.
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