|Scientific Name:||Arctocephalus tropicalis|
|Species Authority:||(J.E. Gray, 1872)|
Arctocephalus elegans Peters, 1876
Arctocephalus tropicalis Peters 1876 ssp. tropicalis
Arctophoca tropicalis Peters 1876
Gypsophoca tropicalis J.E. Gray, 1872
Subantarctic Fur Seals were formerly referred to as Arctocephalus elegens, Arctocephalus gazella and Arctocephalus tropicalis tropicalis. They are now known as Arctocephalus tropicalis (Repenning et al. 1971, Rice 1998). In 2011 the genus of this, and a number of other species of Fur Seals, was revised to Arctophoca, Peters 1866 (Committee on Taxonomy 2011) based on evidence presented in Berta and Churchill (2012). However, in 2013, based on genetic evidence presented in Nyakatura and Bininda-Emonds (2012), this change was considered to be premature and the genus reverted to Arctocephalus pending further research (Committee on Taxonomy 2013).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Lowry, L., Pollock, C.M., Ahonen, H., Chiozza, F. & Battistoni, A.|
Subantarctic Fur Seals should be listed as Least Concern despite a decline at one of the three major subpopulations. This decline is recent, relatively slow (a mean annual rate of -6.4 % for the period 2002/03 – 2012/13), and its causes are not yet understood. Abundance of the other major subpopulations is inferred to be stable. The global population was estimated to be over 400,000 animals in the early 2000s. About 99% of pup production occurs at three sites, with small subpopulations found at five other sites. Of concern is the absence of recent complete assessments of abundance for two of the major subpopulations, which together comprise an estimated 74% of the global total. No subpopulations are isolated and movement takes place between them. No subpopulation, nor the species as a whole, is likely to become extinct in the near future. The effects of global climate change on Fur Seal habitat, and the abundance and distribution of prey species, is a possible threat. This especially true in light of the reduced genetic diversity of this species as a result of the population bottleneck it was subject to. Other threats, including the impact of fishing industries and entanglement in anthropogenic debris, remain low.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Subantarctic Fur Seals are widely-distributed in the southern hemisphere. They breed on Subantarctic islands north of the Antarctic Polar Front, including Amsterdam and Saint Paul Islands (Guinet et al. 1994), the Îsles Crozet (Kingston and Gwilliam 2007), Gough (Bester et al. 2006), Macquarie (Goldsworthy et al. 2009, Lancaster et al. 2006), the Prince Edward Islands (Bester et al. 2003, Hofmeyr et al. 2006a) and Tristan da Cunha (C. Glass pers. comm. in SCAR EGS 2008). Pupping has also been recorded on Heard Island (a single individual in multiple years; Goldsworthy and Shaughnessy 1989, Page et al. 2003). Vagrants have been recorded widely. They have been encountered on the coasts of a number of continents: Antarctica (Shaughnessy and Burton 1986), southern South America (Bastida et al. 199, 9Aguiar-dos Santos and Haimovici 2001), Africa (Shaughnessy and Ross 1980, Bester 1989), as far north as Tanzania (Hofmeyr and Amir 2010), Gabon (Zanre and Bester 2011) and Australia (Gales et al. 1992, Shaughnessy et al. 2014). They have also been recorded on numerous islands including Madagascar (Garrigue and Ross 1996), New Zealand (Taylor 1990), the Comores (David et al. 1993), the Juan Fernandez Islands (Torres and Aguayo 1984), Îles Kerguelen (Wynen et al. 2000), Mauritius (David and Salmon 2003), Bouvetøya (Hofmeyr et al. 2006b) and South Georgia (Payne 1979).
Native:French Southern Territories (Amsterdam-St. Paul Is., Crozet Is., Kerguelen - Vagrant); Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Tristan da Cunha); South Africa (Eastern Cape Province - Vagrant, KwaZulu-Natal - Vagrant, Marion-Prince Edward Is., Northern Cape Province - Vagrant, Western Cape - Vagrant)
Vagrant:Angola (Angola); Antarctica; Argentina; Australia (Macquarie Is. - Native, New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia); Bouvet Island; Brazil; Chile (Juan Fernández Is.); Comoros; Heard Island and McDonald Islands; Madagascar; Mauritius; Mozambique; Namibia; New Zealand (Antipodean Is., North Is., South Is.); South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (South Georgia)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – Antarctic; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest; Indian Ocean – Antarctic; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population of Subantarctic Fur Seals was estimated to be greater than 400,000 animals in the early 2000s (SCAR EGS 2008). Subantarctic Fur Seals breed at numerous sites on eight islands or island groups, and approximately 99% of Subantarctic Fur Seals breed at three of those sites. Some 63% of global pup production is estimated to take place at Gough Island (Bester et al. 2006), 25% at the Prince Edward Islands (Hofmeyr et al. 2006a, Bester et al. 2009, Wege et al. In prep) and 11% at Amsterdam Island (Guinet et al. 1994). Pup production at other sites is a few tens or hundreds at each site (SCAR EGS 2008). These estimates are subject to two provisos. First, of the five islands within the Îsles Crozet, the abundance of Fur Seals has been determined only on Île de la Possession (Guinet et al. 1994). Second, due to the nature of their terrestrial habitat and the isolation of their haulout sites, determining Subantarctic Fur Seal abundance is difficult and it is often inferred from counts of small portions of a subpopulation (Guinet et al. 1994, Bester et al. 2006). |
The estimated abundance of the three main subpopulations has increased over the last few decades and is currently either largely stable or decreasing. The Gough Island subpopulation was stable or had increased slightly between 1975 and 2005, as inferred from counts of selected sites (Bester et al. 2006). The Amsterdam Island population was inferred to be stable between 1982 and 2002, also based on counts of selected sites (Guinet et al. 1994, Guinet pers. comm. in SCAR EGS 2008). More recent estimates of abundance are needed for both Gough and Amsterdam Islands. Complete pup counts indicate that Subantarctic Fur Seal abundance at both islands within the Prince Edward Islands (PEI) increased steadily from 1981 to the early 2000s (Bester et al. 2003, Hofmeyr et al. 2006a). However, pup production at Marion Island (within the Prince Edward Islands) declined by 6.4% between 2003/2004 and 2012/2013 (Wege et al. in prep.). At Prince Edward Island itself, pup production remained very close to stable between 2001/2002 and 2008/2009 (0.3% mean annual decline; Bester et al. 2009) but it is unknown whether it has since experienced a reduction since then like that at Marion Island. Early evidence indicates that the decline at Marion Island might have been due to a reduction in female fecundity following a density dependent limitation of prey resources (Wege et al. in prep.).
Generation length has been calculated at 10.7 years (Pacifici et al. 2013). Population change over the three generations from 1981–2012 has been positive (Guinet et al. 1994, SCAR EGS 2008, Bester et al. 2009, Wege et al. in prep.).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Subantarctic Fur Seals are sexually dimorphic, with adult males being up to 1.8 m long and weighing 70-165 kg, adult females are 1.19-1.52 m long and weigh 25-67 kg, with a mean of around 50 kg. Newborns weigh 4.0-4.4 kg (Laws 1993). Females attain sexual maturity at five years of age (Bester 1995). Gestation lasts 51 weeks. Longevity is unknown (Reijnders et al. 1993).|
Subantarctic Fur Seals are polygynous, males defend territories with vocal and postural displays and fighting (Bester 1981, Kerley 1983). They prefer rough rocky or boulder beaches with sources of shade or exposure to prevailing winds (Bester 1982). Pups are born from late October to early January, with a peak in mid-December. Females give birth within six days of arriving at the colony with oestrous and mating occurs eight to 12 days later. Females spend the time between the births of their pups and oestrous with their newborn before mating and departing for the first of a series of foraging trips they will make before weaning their pup at approximately 11 months of age (Bester 1981, Kerley 1983, Goldsworthy 1999). Trip durations of mothers increase over the course of lactation from six to 10 days to 23-28 days (Goldsworthy 1999, Georges and Guinet 2000, Kirkman et al. 2002). Dives become deeper and slightly longer over the summer. Dives are seldom deeper than 100 m (but up to 208 m) or longer than four minutes (Georges et al. 2000). Foraging behaviour varies between subpopulations (Robinson et al. 2002, Beauplet et al. 2004, Bailleul et al. 2005, de Bruyn et al. 2009).
Subantarctic Fur Seals are opportunistic and pelagic foragers. They feed on myctophid and notothenid fish, cephalopods, and small numbers of crustaceans at Gough Island (Bester and Laycock 1985), the Prince Edward Islands (Klages and Bester 1998, Makhado et al. 2013), Macquarie Island (Goldsworthy et al. 1997, Robinson et al. 2002) and the Isles Crozet (Cherel et al. 2007, Kernaléguen et al. 2012). At Amsterdam Island they have been recorded to take Rockhopper Penguins (Paulian 1964).
Subantarctic Fur Seals are sympatric with other species of Fur Seals at three sites. Low levels of hybridization with Antarctic Fur Seals occurs at the Prince Edward Islands (Hofmeyr et al. 2006a) and the Îles Crozet (Kingston and Gwilliam 2007). Hybridization occurs with both Antarctic Fur Seals and New Zealand Fur Seals at Macquarie Island (Lancaster et al. 2006, Goldsworthy et al. 2009, Lancaster et al. 2010).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||No|
|Generation Length (years):||10.7|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Use and Trade:||
Subantarctic Fur Seals were last harvested in 1921 when 785 were taken at the Prince Edward Islands (Kerley 1987). This species has not been exploited since.
Similar to all of the other southern Fur Seals, Subantarctic Fur Seals were over-exploited by sealers in the 18th and 19th century and were reduced to the brink of extinction at the beginning of the 20th century. Since then their population has increased rapidly and they have reoccupied much of their former range (Bester 1987, Kerley 1987, Roux 1987, Guinet et al. 1994). While the abundance of two of the major subpopulations are thought to be stable (Guinet et al. 1994, Bester et al. 2006, SCAR EGS 2008), that of the third has recently decreased (Bester et al. 2009, Wege et al. in prep.). Wege et al. (in prep.) suggest that this may be due to the effects of density dependent food limitation on adult female fecundity. It is also possible that climate change has played a role in the decline. Climate change is potentially detrimental to Fur Seals through impacts on the abundance and distribution of prey species and changes in environmental conditions (Learmonth et al. 2006, Kovacs et al. 2012, McDonald et al. 2012, McBride et al. 2014).
Few fisheries take place in waters occupied by this species but fisheries may expand in their range (Hanchet et al. 2003). Anthropogenic marine debris, primarily from the fishing industry is responsible for entanglements. At the Prince Edward Islands incidences of debris entanglement are less than one percent for the combined Antarctic/Subantarctic Fur Seal populations (Hofmeyr et al. 2002).
Fur seals are also at risk of mass mortality from infectious diseases because of they congregate in large numbers, and because they were subject to a population bottleneck that has reduced their genetic variation (Lavigne and Schmitz 1990, Wynen et al. 2000). The isolation of their breeding habitat, however, affords them some degree of protection (Lavigne and Schmitz 1990, Chown et al. 1998). The small recovering population at Macquarie Island is at risk from predation by New Zealand Sea Lions and hybridization (Robinson et al. 1999, Goldsworthy et al. 2008).
Subantarctic Fur Seals live in some of the most remote oceanic areas and breed on many of the most isolated islands on Earth. All of the breeding islands are managed as protected areas or parks by the governments that claim these territories. Seals on the Prince Edward Islands are protected by the South African Sea Bird and Seal Protection Act of 1973 and also inhabit a special nature reserve and a marine protected area (PEIMP 2010). Seals on Gough and Tristan Islands are protected by the Tristan da Cunha Conservation Ordinance of 1976. Amsterdam and Saint Paul Islands are regulated by the French Chamber of Deputies, while at Macquarie Island, the Fur Seals are protected by the Tasmanian Department of Parks, Wildlife, and Heritage (Reijnders et al. 1993) and by the Australian Government’s Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999), under which they are listed as a Threatened Species (Vulnerable category) based on the low number of individuals breeding in the Australian region.
Aguiar-Dos Santos, R. and Haimovici, M. 2001. Cephalopods in the diet of marine mammals stranded or incidentally caught along southeastern and southern Brazil (21- 34º S). Fisheries Research 52: 99-112.
Bailleul, F., Luque, S., Dubroca, L., Arnould, J.P.Y. and Guinet, C. 2005. Differences in foraging strategy and maternal behaviour between two sympatric fur seal species at the Crozet Islands. Marine Ecology Progress Series 293: 273-282.
Bastida, R., Loureiro, J., Quse, V., Bernadelli, A., Rodriguez, D. and Costa, E. 1999. Tuberculosis in a wild subantarctic fur seal from Argentina. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 35: 796-798.
Beauplet, G., Dubroca, L., Guinet, C., Cherel, Y., Dabin, W., Gagne, C. and Hindell, M. 2004. Foraging ecology of Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis) breeding on Amsterdam Island: seasonal changes in relation to maternal characteristics and pup growth. Marine Ecology Progress Series 273: 211-225.
Berta, A. and Churchill, M. 2012. Pinniped taxonomy: review of currently recognized species and subspecies, and evidence used for their description. Mammal Review 42: 207-234.
Bester, M. N. 1981. Seasonal changes in the population composition of the fur seal Arctocephalus tropicalis at Gough Island. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 11: 49-55.
Bester, M. N. 1982. Distribution, habitat selection and colony types of the Amsterdam Island fur seal Arctocephalus tropicalis at Gough Island. Journal of Zoology (London) 196: 217-231.
Bester, M.N. 1989. 1987. The Subantarctic fur seal Arctocephalus tropicalis at Gough Island (Tristan da Cunha Group). In: J.P. Croxall and R.L. Gentry (eds), Status, Biology and Ecology of Fur Seals; Proceedings of an International Symposium and Workshop, Cambridge, England, 23-27 April 1984. NOAA Technical Report NMFS. 51:57-60.
Bester, M. N. 1989. Movements of southern elephant seals and subantarctic fur seals in relation to Marion Island. Marine Mammal Science 5: 257-265.
Bester, M. N. 1995. Reproduction in the female subantarctic fur seal, Artocephalus tropicalis. Marine Mammal Science 11(3): 362-375.
Bester, M.N. and Laycock P.A. 1985. Cephalopod prey of the Sub-Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis, at Gough Island. In: W.R. Siegfried, P.R.Condy, R.M. Laws (ed.), Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs, pp. 551-554. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Bester, M. N., Ryan, P. G. and Dyer, B. M. 2003. Population numbers of fur seals at Prince Edward Island, Southern Ocean. African Journal of Marine Science 25: 549-554.
Bester, M.N., Ryan, P.G. and Visagie, J. 2009. Summer survey of fur seals at Prince Edward Island, southern Indian Ocean. African Journal of Marine Science 31: 451-455.
Bester, M. N., Wilson, J. W., Burle, M.-H. and Hofmeyr, G. J. G. 2006. Population trend of Subantarctic fur seals at Gough Island. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 36: 191-194.
Cherel, Y., Hobson, K.A., Guinet, C. and Vanpé, C. 2007. Stable isotopes document seasonal changes in trophic niches and winter foraging individual specialization in diving predators from the Southern Ocean. Journal of Animal Ecology 76: 826-836.
Chown, S. L., Gremmen, N. J. M. and Gaston, K. J. 1998. Ecological biogeography of the Southern Ocean Islands: species-area relationships, human impacts, and conservation. American Naturalist 152: 562-575.
Committee on Taxonomy. 2011. List of marine mammal species and subspecies. Society for Marine Mammalogy. Available at: https://www.marinemammalscience.org/species-information/list-of-marine-mammal-species-subspecies/. (Accessed: 10 January 2012).
Committee on Taxonomy. 2013. List of marine mammal species and subspecies. Updated 3 December 2013. Available at: http://www.marinemammalscience.org. (Accessed: 3 July 2014).
David, J. H. M. and Salmon, L. 2003. Records of the subantarctic fur seal from Rodrigues and Mauritius, Indian Ocean. African Journal of Marine Sciences 25: 403-405.
David, J. H. M., Mercer, J. and Hunter, K. 1993. A vagrant subantarctic fur seal Arctocephalus tropicalis found in the Comores. South African Journal of Zoology 28: 61-62.
de Bruyn, P.J.N., Tosh, C.A., Oosthuizen, W.C., Bester, M.N. and Arnould, J.P.Y. 2009. Bathymetry and frontal systems interactions influence seasonal foraging movements of lactating subantarctic fur seals from Marion Island. Marine Ecology Progress Series 394: 263-276.
Gales, N. J., Coughran, D. and Queale, L. F. 1992. Records of Subantarctic fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis in Australia. Australian Mammalogy 15: 135-138.
Garrigue, C. and Ross, G. 1996. A record of the subantarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis, from Madagascar, Indian Ocean. Marine Mammal Science 125: 624-626.
Georges, J-Y. and Guinet, C. 2000. Maternal care in Subantarctic fur seals on Amsterdam Island. Ecology 81(2): 295-308.
Georges, J.-Y., Tremblay, Y. and Guinet, C. 2000. Seasonal diving behaviour in lactating subantarctic fur seals on Amsterdam Island. Polar Biology 23: 59-69.
Goldsworthy, S. D. 1999. Maternal attendance behaviour of sympatrically breeding Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus spp., at Macquarie Island. Polar Biology 21: 316-325.
Goldsworthy, S. D. and Shaughnessy, P. D. 1989. Subantarctic fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis at Heard Island. Polar Biology 9: 337-339.
Goldsworthy, S. D., Hindell, M. A., and Crowley, H. M. 1997. Diet and diving behaviour of sympatric fur seals, Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis, at Macquarie Island. In: M. A. Hindell and C. Kemper (eds), Marine mammal research in Australia and New Zealand, pp. 151-163. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney.
Goldsworthy, S. D., McKenzie, J., Page, B., Lancaster, M., and Bool, N. 2008. Population status and trends in the abundance of the fur seals at Macquarie Island. Report to the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. SARDI Research Report Series No. 308. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide.
Goldsworthy, S. D., McKenzie, J., Page, B., Lancaster, M. L., Shaughnessy, P. D., Wynen, L. P., Robinson, S. A., Peters, K. J., Baylis, A. M. M., and McIntosh, R. R. 2009. Fur seals at Macquarie Island: post-sealing colonisation, trends in abundance and hybridisation of three species. Polar Biology 32: 1473–1486.
Guinet, C., Jouventin, P. and. Georges, J.-Y. 1994. Long term population changes of fur seals Arctocephalus gazella and Arctocephalus tropicalis on subantarctic (Crozet) and subtropical (St. Paul and Amsterdam) Islands and their possible relationship to El Nino Southern Oscillation. Antarctic Science 6(4): 473-478.
Hanchet, S., Horn, P. and Stevenson, M. 2003. Fishing in the ice: is it sustainable? Water & Atmosphere 11: 24–25.
Hofmeyr, G.J.G. and Amir, O.A. 2010. Vagrant Subantarctic fur seal on the coast of Tanzania. African Zoology 45: 144-146.
Hofmeyr, G.J.G. and Bester M.N. 2008. Subantarctic Islands. In: M. Lück (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Tourism and Recreation in Marine Environments, pp. 456-457. CABI, Wallingford, UK.
Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Bester, M.N., Kirkman, S.P., Lydersen, C. and Kovacs, K.M. 2006b. Entanglement of Antarctic fur seals at Bouvetøya, Southern Ocean. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52: 1077-1080.
Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Bester, M.N., Makhado, A.B. and Pistorius, P.A. 2006a. Population changes in Subantarctic and Antarctic fur seals at Marion Island. Polar Biology 17: 150-158.
Hofmeyr, G. J. G., De Maine, M., Bester, M. N., Kirkman, S. P., Pistorius, P. A. and Makhado, A. B. 2002. Entanglement of pinnipeds at Marion Island, Southern Ocean, 1991-2001. Australian Mammalogy 24: 141-146.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Kerley, G. I. H. 1983. Comparison of seasonal haulout patterns of fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis and A. gazella on Subantarctic Marion Island. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 13: 71-77.
Kerley, G.I.H. 1987. Arctocephalus tropicalis on the Prince Edward Islands. In: J.P. Croxall and R.L. Gentry (eds), Status, Biology and Ecology of Fur Seals; Proceedings of an International Symposium and Workshop, Cambridge, England, 23-27 April 1984. NOAA Technical Report NMFS. 51:61-64..
Kernaléguen, L., Cazelles, B., Arnould, J.P.Y., Richard, P., Guinet, C., Cherel, Y. 2012. Long-term species, sexual and individual variations in foraging strategies of fur seals revealed by stable isotopes in whiskers. PLoS One 7: e32916.
Kingston, J.J. and Gwilliam, J. 2007. Hybridization between two sympatrically breeding species of fur seal at Iles Crozet revealed by genetic analysis. Conservation Genetics 8: 1133-1145.
Kirkman, S.P., Bester, M.N., Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Pistorius, P.A. and Makhado, A.B. 2002. Pup growth and maternal attendance patterns in Subantarctic fur seals. African Zoology 37: 13-19.
Kirkwood, R., Boren, L., Shaughnessy, P.D., Szteren, D., Mawson, P., Hückstädt, L., Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Oosthuizen, H., Campagna, C. and Berris, M. 2003. Pinniped-focused tourism in the Southern Hemisphere: a review of the industry. In: N. Gales, M. Hindell and R. Kirkwood (eds), Marine mammals and humans: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues, pp. 257-276. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.
Klages, N. T. W. and Bester, M. N. 1998. Fish prey of fur seals Arctocephalus spp. at subantarctic Marion Island. Marine biology 131: 559-566.
Kovacs, K.M., Aguilar, A., Aurioles, D., Burkanov, V., Campagna, C., Gales, N.J., Gelatt, T., Goldsworthy, S.D., Goodman, S.J., Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Härkönen, T., Lowry, L., Lydersen, L., Schipper, J., Sipilä, T., Southwell, C., Thompson, D. and Trillmich, F. 2012. Global threats to pinnipeds. Marine Mammal Science 28: 414-436.
Lancaster, M.L., Gemmell, N.J., Negro, S., Goldsworthy, S. and Sunnucks, P. 2006. Ménage à trois on Macquarie Island: hybridization among three species of fur seal (Arctocephalus spp.) following historical population extinction. Molecular Ecology 15: 3681-3692.
Lancaster, M. L., Goldsworthy, S. D., and Sunnucks, P. 2010. Two behavioural traits promote fine-scale species segregation and moderate hybridisation in a recovering sympatric fur seal population. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2010 10: 143.
Lavigne D.M. and Schmitz, O.J. 1990. Global warming and increasing population densities: a prescription for seal plagues. Marine Pollution Bulletin 21: 280-284.
Laws, R. M. 1993. Identification of species. In: R. M. Laws (ed.), Antarctic seals, pp. 1-28. Cambridge University Press.
Learmonth, J.A., Macleod, C.D., Santos, M.B., Pierce, G.J., Crick, H.Q.P. and Robinson, R.A. 2006. Potential effects of climate change on marine mammals. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 44: 431-464.
McBride, M.M., Dalpadado, P., Drinkwater, K.F., Godø, O.R., Hobday, A.J., Hollowed, A.B., Kristiansen, T., Murphy, E.J., Ressler, P.H., Subbey, S., Hofmann, E.E. and Loeng, H. 2014. Krill, climate, and contrasting future scenarios for Arctic and Antarctic fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71: 1934-1955.
McDonald, B.I., Goebel, M.E., Crocker, D.E. and Costa, D.P. 2012. Biological and environmental drivers of energy allocation in a dependent mammal, the Antarctic fur seal pup. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 85: 134-147.
Nyakatura, K. and Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P. 2012. Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates. BMC Biology 10: 12.
Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.
Page, B., Welling, A., Chambellant, M., Goldsworthy, S.D., Dorr, T. and Van Veen, R.Page, B., Welling, A., Chambellant, M., Goldsworthy, S.D., Dorr, T. and Van Veen, R. 2003. Population status and breeding season chronology of Heard Island fur seals. Polar Biology 26: 219-224.
Paulian, P. 1964. Contribution à l’étude de l’oterie de l’Ile Amsterdam. Mammalia 28: 3-146.
Payne, M. R. 1979. Fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis and A. gazella crossing the Antarctic Convergence at South Georgia. Mammalia 43: 93-98.
PEIMC. 1996. Prince Edward Islands Management Plan. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria, South Africa.
PEIMP. 2010. Prince Edward Islands Management Plan. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria, South Africa.
Reijnders, P., Brasseur, S., van der Toorn, J., van der Wolf, P., Boyd, I., Harwood, J., Lavigne, D. and Lowry, L. 1993. Seals, fur seals, sea lions, and walrus. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN Seal Specialist Group.
Repenning, C.A., Peterson, R.S. and Hubbs, C.L. 1971. Contributions to the systematics of the southern fur seals, with particular reference to the Juan Fernández and Guadalupe species. In: W.H. Burt (ed.), Antarctic Pinnipedia, pp. 1-34. Antarctic Research Series 18, American Geophysical Union, New York, USA.
Rice, D.W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence, Kansas.
Robinson, S. A., Goldsworthy, S. G., Van den Hoff, J. and Hindell, M. A. 2002. The foraging ecology of two sympatric fur seal species, Arctocephalus gazella and Arctocephalus tropicalis, at Macquarie Island during the austral summer. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 1071-1082.
Robinson. S., Wynen L. and Goldsworthy S. 1999. Predation by a Hooker’s sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) on a small population of fur seals (Arctocephalus spp.) at Macquarie Island. Marine Mammal Science 15: 888-893.
Roux, J.-P. 1987. Subantarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis, in French subantarctic territories. In: J.P. Croxall and R.L. Gentry (eds), Status, Biology and Ecology of Fur Seals. Proceedings of an International Symposium and Workshop, Cambridge, England, 23-27 April 1984. NOAA Technical report NMFS 51: 79-82.
SCAR-EGS. 2008. Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research – Expert Group on Seals Report. Available at: http://www.seals.scar.org/pdf/statusofstocs.pdf. (Accessed: 5 November 2014).
Shaughnessy, P. D. and Burton, H. R. 1986. Fur seals Arctocephalus spp. At Mawson Station, Antarctica, and in the Southern Ocean. Polar Records 23: 79-81.
Shaughnessy, P. D. and Ross, G. J. B. 1980. Records of the subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) from South Africa with notes on its biology and some observations of captive animals. Annals of the South African Museum 242: 71-89.
Shaughnessy P.D., Kemper, C.M., Stemmer, D. and McKenzie, J. 2014. Records of vagrant fur seals (family Otariidae) in South Australia. Australian Mammalogy 36: 154-168.
Shirihai, H. 2002. A complete guide to Antarctic wildlife. Alula Press.
Taylor, R. H. 1990. Records of subantarctic fur seals in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 24: 499-502.
Torres, D. and Aguayo, A. 1984. Presence of Arctocephalus tropicalis (Gray 1872) at the Juan Fernandez Archipelago, Chile. Acta Zoologica 172: 130-134.
Wege, M., Oosthuizen, W.C., de Bruyn, P.J.N., Reisinger, R.R. and Bester, M.N. in prep. Population changes of sympatric Subantarctic and Antarctic fur seals at subantarctic Marion Isl.
Wynen, L. P., Goldsworthy, S. D., Guinet, C., Bester, M. N., Boyd, I. L., Gjertz, I., Hofmeyr, G. J. G., White, R. W. G. and Slade, R. W. 2000. Post sealing genetic variation and population structure of two species of fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis). Molecular Ecology 9: 299-314.
Zanre, R. and Bester, M.N. 2011. Vagrant Subantarctic fur seal in the Mayumba National Park, Gabon. African Zoology 46: 185-187.
|Citation:||Hofmeyr, G.J.G. 2015. Arctocephalus tropicalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T2062A45224547.Downloaded on 18 January 2017.|