|Scientific Name:||Otospermophilus variegatus Erxleben, 1777|
Spermophilus variegatus (Erxleben, 1777)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Helgen, K.M., Cole, F.R.,Helgen, L.E. and Wilson, D.E. 2009. Generic revision in the Holarctic ground squirrel genus Spermophilus. Journal of Mammalogy 90(2): 270-305.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Lacher, T., Timm, R. & Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T.|
|Contributor(s):||Linzey, A. & Castro-Arellano, I.|
This species is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it does not appear to be under threat and is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species distribution constitutes an extensive range in southwestern United States and Mexico, from eastern Nevada, Utah, and Colorado, south through west Texas (in the east) and southeast California (in the west) to southernmost Puebla, Mexico. It has been found from sea level to 2,900 m (Wilson and Ruff 1999).|
Native:Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas); United States (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is locally common (Wilson and Ruff 1999). It is colonial, with reported densities of 2.0 individuals/ha in marginal habitat and 5.7 individuals/ha in good habitat.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occurs in semi-arid areas, specifically among rocky canyons, cliffs, and hillsides. It is also found in urban areas. Despite what is portrayed by most range maps, this species is unlikely to occur in sub-tropical forest on the western Mexican coastal plateau.|
This species has food habits that tend towards buds, nuts, fruits, and seeds such as pinyon, wild lupine, acorns, juniper berries, grapes, and corn. It also feeds on grasshoppers, beetles, earthworms, and even young turkeys. Although the rock squirrel is largely a vegetarian, it will eat meat if the opportunity arises (Wilson and Ruff 1999).
This squirrel tends to be colonial. Within a colony, there is a dominant male and a number of subordinant males. Females have one or two litters per year, depending on the length of the winter and gestation takes 1 to 1.5 months. Litters consist of one to seven young (typically four).
|Generation Length (years):||2-3|
No major threats known.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no known conservation measures specific to this species. However, there are several protected areas within its range.|
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Oaks, E.C., Young, P.J., Kirkland Jr., P.G. and Schmidt, D.F. 1987. Spermophilus variegatus. Mammalian Species 272: 1-8.
Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.
Wilson, D.E. and Ruff, S. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Lacher, T., Timm, R. & Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T. 2016. Otospermophilus variegatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T20495A22263993.Downloaded on 13 December 2017.|