|Scientific Name:||Sechellophryne gardineri|
|Species Authority:||(Boulenger, 1911)|
Leptosooglossus gardineri (Boulenger, 1911)
Nectophryne gardineri Boulenger, 1911
Sooglossus gardineri (Boulenger, 1911)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group,|
|Contributor(s):||Gerlach, J. & Nussbaum, R.|
Listed as Endangered given that its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 116-120 km2, its area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 33 km2, it is known from three threat-defined locations, its population is considered to be severely fragmented, and there is a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals, its area of occupancy and quality of its habitat due to projected changes in rainfall patterns in the Seychelles and the loss of suitable habitat to invasive plants.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species occurs on Mahé and Silhouette islands in the Seychelles, from 150-991 m asl (J. Gerlach pers. comm. March 2012). Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 116-120 km2, while its area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 33 km2 based on area polygons for occupied habitat for each mapped subpopulation (J. Gerlach pers. comm. March 2012). There are five known subpopulations (J. Gerlach pers. comm. March 2012), which are herein aggregated into three threat-defined locations: one location in Silhouette comprising one subpopulation, and two locations in Mahé comprising four subpopulations; of these two locations one is comprised of higher elevations (two subpopulations) and the second one of lower elevations (two subpopulations) (J. Gerlach pers. comm. March 2012).|
|Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||32.9|
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||116|
|Lower elevation limit (metres):||150|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||991|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is common at many sites in both disturbed and relatively undisturbed rainforest, occurring at densities of up to 2,000 animals per hectare in the best habitat. Population monitoring from 1994-2010 recorded declines in population density in lower altitude sites of over 67% over 16 years, while high altitude sites retained stable populations over this time (Gerlach 2011; J. Gerlach pers. comm. March 2012). These low altitude population declines have been associated with changes in rainfall patterns, which are in turn attributed to climate change (J. Gerlach pers. comm. March 2012). Furthermore, the projected effects of climate change suggest significant future population declines for all Seychelles Sooglossid frogs (Gerlach 2011). The global population is considered to be severely fragmented i.e., it occurs in fragmented habitat patches, the species has poor dispersal ability, such that it is not possible for animals to move between fragments, and it is believed that 50% or more of its individuals occur in isolated and fragmented habitat patches (J. Gerlach pers. comm. March 2012).|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It lives both on the ground in forest leaf litter and on low vegetation in leaf axils, in disturbed and undisturbed rainforest. It also occurs in degraded primary forest areas dominated by introduced trees such as cinnamon. It is rarely recorded in areas of secondary forest and the edges of highly degraded forests. It breeds by direct development, the eggs being laid on the ground, with clutch size ranges from 8-16 eggs (J. Gerlach pers. comm. March 2012).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||
There are no reports of this species being utilized.
|Major Threat(s):||The main threats are considered to be climate change and habitat degradation. Habitats are deteriorating mainly due to the increased frequency of fires and invasive species (principally the tree Cinnamomum verum), but this frog is somewhat adaptable to secondary habitats (J. Gerlach pers. comm. March 2012). Logging and small-scale agriculture are too localized to have a significant impact on this species (J. Gerlach pers. comm. March 2012). Cinnamon was established in plantations on Mahé in the 18-19th centuries (J. Gerlach pers. comm. March 2012). While this species has been identified as being more tolerant of dry conditions relative to other Sooglossid frogs, climate change is projected to lead to a 10% decline in area of occupancy within ten years, and a range contraction of 60% by 2100 for Seychelles Sooglossid frogs (Gerlach 2011; J. Gerlach pers. comm. March 2012).|
It occurs in the Morne Seychellois National Park, and in the site of a conservation project on Silhouette. There is a need for close monitoring of the population status of this species; this was initiated in 1996 but was forcibly terminated in 2011 (J. Gerlach pers. comm. March 2012). Captive colonies have been successfully maintained, although successful captive breeding has yet to be recorded for this species (J. Gerlach pers. comm. March 2012). The development of captive breeding techniques is recommended for this species, as well as improved habitat management to minimize the impact of invasive species (J. Gerlach pers. comm. March 2012).
Gerlach, J. 2011. The potential effects of climate change on the status of Seychelles frogs (Anura: Sooglossidae). Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(11): 2153-2166.
Gerlach, J. and Willi, J. 2002. A new species of frog, genus Sooglossus (Anura, Sooglossidae) from Silhouette Island, Seychelles. Amphibia-Reptilia 23: 445-458.
Green, D.M., Nussbaum, R.A. and Datong, Y. 1988. Genetic divergence and heterozygosity among frogs of the family Sooglossidae. Herpetologica 44: 113-119.
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
Nussbaum, R.A. 1984. Amphibians of the Seychelles. In: D.R. Stoddart (ed.), Biogeography and Ecology in the Seychelles Islands, pp. 379-415. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague.
Nussbaum, R.A., Jaslow, A. and Watson, J. 1982. Vocalization in frogs of the family Sooglossidae. Journal of Herpetology 16: 198-204.
van der Meijden, A., Boistel, R., Gerlach, J., Ohler, A., Vences, M. and Meyer, A. 2007. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for paraphyly of the genus Sooglossus, with the description of a new genus of Seychellean frogs. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 91: 347-359.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group,. 2013. Sechellophryne gardineri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T20380A15181011. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T20380A15181011.en . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.|