Crataegus nigra

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA MAGNOLIOPSIDA ROSALES ROSACEAE

Scientific Name: Crataegus nigra
Species Authority: Waldst. & Kit.
Common Name(s):
English Hungarian Thorn, Pannonian Black Hawthorn
Synonym(s):
Mespilus nigra (Waldst. & Kit.) Willd.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2ac; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-02-18
Assessor(s): Bartha, D.
Reviewer(s): Allen, D.J., Idzojtic, M. & Leaman, D.J.
Contributor(s): Khela, S., Király, G., Turonova, D. & Idzojtic, M.
Justification:
The species is endemic to central-eastern Europe (Carpathian Basin) and the northern Balkans; confirmed historical native records of the species are from Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia, however it appears that the species range has greatly diminished in recent years, with confirmed current records only known from the Danube floodplain in Hungary and Croatia (D. Bartha pers com 2014) and Serbia, with no recent records of the species from other former parts of its range, and it is considered possibly extinct in Slovakia and Romania.

In Hungary, the forest habitat area has been reduced due to industrialization. It is also impacted by a range of threats including forest clearance, forest management methods, development of plantations, declining groundwater levels, and grazing by wild animals (primarily deer). Based on available recent records of the species from Hungary and Croatia (D. Bartha pers. comm. 2014), the extent of occurrence of the species is estimated at 3,188 km2 and the area of occupancy at 128 km2 (the latter is assumed to be an under-estimate).

This species is given a precautionary assessment of Endangered (A2ac; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)) in both Europe (and thus globally) and the EU 27, as it is threatened or has disappeared across a significant portion of its range over the past several decades, and continues to decline. Although the population decline can't be accurately estimated with the data available, it is thought to approach or exceed 50% in the past three generations, with causative declines in AOO, EOO, and habitat quality and extent.

More information on the current population size, trends and the overall rate of decline is needed, and confirmation of the species presence and distribution in all parts of its former range. This species' habitat should be protected, unfavourable forest management methods improved, and alien species controlled to protect declining populations.
History:
2013 Vulnerable

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species is endemic to central-eastern Europe (the Carpathian Basin) and the northern Balkans (Kurtto 2009, USDA 2013). Confirmed records of the species are from Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Romania and Serbia (G. Király pers. comm. 2013), however it appears that the species' range has greatly diminished in recent years, with current confirmed records known only from the Danube floodplain in Hungary and Croatia (D. Bartha pers. comm. 2014).

In the northern Balkans, the species was known from the Danube basin, but is considered possibly extinct from here, with no recent records (D. Bartha pers. comm. 2014). Records from the Suva Planina Mountains in southeast Serbia (Papp and Erzberger 2009) require confirmation as they may be a misidentification of Crataegus pentagyna, as may records from Montenegro (D. Bartha pers. comm. 2014).

Hungary

26 recent populations known, ten populations disappeared in the last 50 years, with recent records of the species restricted to along the Danube from Csepel Island to the Hungarian border.

Slovakia
Possibly extinct; previously recorded from Bratislava (old data); currently only known in cultivation (Marhold and Hindák 2014).

Croatia
The species is present south from the Hungary-Croatia border along the Danube, in the Baranja and Eastern Slavonia regions; the southeastern population is near Ilok.

Serbia
Previously known from nine sites along the Danube, but considered likely to have been lost from some; there are recent records from the Begečka Jama wetlands (Danube Virtual Museum 2014), the Gornje Podunavlje Ramsar wetland (Stojnić 2007) and the Karapandža natural park (Márkus and Ŝakić undated); records of the species from the Suva Planina Mountains require confirmation.

Romania
Five sites were known along the Danube; possibly extinct, the eastern occurrence of the species was from Turnu Severin, with the last record from 1955.

Considered introduced (cultivated) in the Czech Republic (Danihelka et al. 2012). The species has in the past been misidentified as Crataegus pentagyna Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd., but this species lives in xerotherm forests, while C. nigra is found in alluvial forests (Bartha and Kerényi-Nagy 2010).

Based on available recent records of the species from Hungary and Croatia (D. Bartha pers. comm. 2014), the extent of occurrence of the species is estimated at 3,188 km2 and the area of occupancy at 128 km2 (the latter is assumed to be an under-estimate).
Countries:
Native:
Croatia; Hungary; Serbia (Serbia, Serbia)
Possibly extinct:
Romania; Slovakia
Introduced:
Czech Republic
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The total population size is unknown, but this species is uncommon across its remaining range; it is rare in Hungary and Croatia (M. Idzojtic pers. comm. 2014), and possibly extinct in the wild in Serbia, Romania, and Slovakia (Kurtto 2009, G. Király pers. comm. 2013).

In Slovakia its threat status is unclear according to Čeřovský et al. (1999); Marhold and Hindák (2014) list it as occurring only in cultivation in Slovakia. Although it is rare and fairly unknown in Croatia, it is naturally widespread along the Danube River in Baranja and Eastern Slavonia. The population is considered endangered and declining in Hungary, where a majority of the subpopulations are found (Baričevič et al. 2004, Király 2007, G. Király pers. comm. 2013).

In Croatia, the number of known sub-populations has declined by nearly 50% (from 57 to 29 sub-populations; D. Bartha, pers. comm. 2014).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: A deciduous tree or shrub found in found in alluvial forests (Bartha and Kerényi-Nagy 2010), forest edges and shrubland. It occurs sporadically in closed forest stands, though it does not thrive there. It differs from other European species of Crataegus in that it is found in flooded alluvial habitats along major waterways and edges of poplar, ash and oak forests, where it usually forms small stands in the form of secondary hydrophilic bushy communities (Papp and Erzberger 2009, Čarni et al. 2004, Franjić et al. 2006). Many Crataegus species are long-lived, with some living for hundreds of years; the generation length for this species is estimated at 30-50 years.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is planted along water courses to repair embankments (Papp and Erzberger 2009, Čarni et al. 2004, Franjić et al. 2006). It is considered to be a medicinal and aromatic plant (Kathe et al. 2003) and is known for its fruit (Baričevič et al. 2004).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Hungary, the forest habitat area has been reduced due to industrialization (Baričevič et al. 2004). It is also threatened by forest clearance, rough forest management methods, forestation with alien species, overpopulated game-stock, introgressive hybridization, gene pool erosion and shrub clearance (Bartha and Nagy 2004, Bartha and Kerényi-Nagy 2013), as well as significant hybridization with Crataegus monogyna (Király 2007). Additional threats include declining groundwater levels, and grazing by wild animals (primarily deer).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Assessed as Endangered in Hungary, where a major proportion of its subpopulations are found and it is strictly protected (Király 2007, G. Király pers. comm. 2013). It is listed as presumably extinct in Slovakia in the Euro+Med Plantbase (Kurtto 2009), though according to Čeřovský et al. (1999), its threat status is unclear. It does not appear in the Carpathian Red List (Witkowski et al. 2003), and is not listed in the Red Book of Vascular Flora of Croatia (Nikolić and Topić 2005). The species occurs in several protected areas within its range including Béda-Karapancsa / Karapandža transboundary park, the Begečka Jama wetlands, and the Gornje Podunavlje Ramsar wetland.

More information is needed on the overall population size and trends. Where the species is threatened, its habitat should be protected, unfavourable forest management methods improved, and game-stock and alien species controlled to protect declining populations.

Bibliography [top]

Baričevič, D., Bernáth, J., Maggioni, L. and Lipman, E., compilers. 2004. Report of a Working Group on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. First meeting, 12-14 September 2002, Gozd Martuljek, Slovenia. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.

Bartha, D. and Kerényi-Nagy, V. 2010. Fekete galagonya (Crataegus nigra Waldst. & Kit.). Tilia 15: 54-74.

Bartha, D. and Kerényi-Nagy, V. 2013. Crataegus nigra WALDST. et KIT., 1801. In: Roloff, A. Weisgerber, H., Lang, U.M., and Stimm, B. (eds), Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse. Handbuch und Atlas der Dendrologie, Wiley-VCH Verlag,, Weinheim.

Bartha, D. and Nagy, A. 2004. Threatened tree and shrub species in Hungary. Folia Oecologica 31(2).

Čarni, A., Franjić, J., and Škvorc, Ž. 2004. Crataegus nigra Waldst. et Kit. dominated community in the flooded Danube river area in Croatia. Hacquetia 3(2): 81-90.

Čeřovský, J., Feráková, V., Holub, J., Maglocký, Š. and Procházka, F. 1999. Červená kniha ohrozených a vzácnych druhov rastlín a živočíchov SR a ČR 5. Vyššie rastliny (Red Book of Endangered and Rare Species of Flora and Fauna of the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic. 5. Higher plants.). Príroda, Bratislava.

Danihelka, J., Chrtek Jr., J., Kaplan, Z. 2012. Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic. Presalia 84: 647-811.

Danube Virtual Museum. 2014. Nature Park "Begečka Jama". Belgrade Available at: http://virtuelnimuzejdunava.rs/serbia/natural-heritage/nature-parks/begecka-jama.451.html. (Accessed: 26 June 2014).

Franjić, J., Škvorc, Z. and Čarni, A. 2006. Distribution of Crataegus nigra Waldst. et Kit. in Croatia and its Importance for Forest Edge Vegetation Formation. Šumarski list 130(1-2).

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 24 July 2014).

Kathe, W., Honnef, S. and Heym, A. 2003. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania. BfN Skripten 91.

Király, G. (ed.). 2007. Red List of the vascular flora of Hungary (Vörös Lista: A magyarországi edényes flóra veszélyeztetett fajai). pp. 73. Saját kiadás, Sopron.

Kurtto, A. 2009. Rosaceae (pro parte majore). In: Euro+Med Plantbase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Berlin. Available at: http://www.emplantbase.org/home.html.

Marhold, K. and Hindák, F. 2014. Checklist of Non-Vascular and Vascular Plants of Slovakia [Zoznam nižších a vyšších rastlín Slovenska]. Version 1.1. Available at: http://ibot.sav.sk/checklist/index.php?lang=en. (Accessed: 20 February 2014).

Márkus, A. and Ŝakić, R. undated. Trans-Boundary Managment Concept for the Karapancsa (HU) / Karapandža (SRB). Danube-Drava National Park Directorate, Pécs.

Nikolić, T. and Topić, J. 2005. Red Book of Vascular Flora of Croatia. Ministry of Culture, State Institute for Nature Protection, Republic of Croatia, Zagreb.

Papp, B. and Erzberger, P. 2009. Contributions to the Bryophyte flora of southeastern Serbia: Suvu Planina Mts and its surroundings. Studia bot. hung. 40: 125-142.

Stojnić, N. 2007. Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands (RIS): Gornje Podunavlje. Novi Beograd Available at: http://sites.wetlands.org/reports/ris/3RS007RIS2007.pdf. (Accessed: 26 June 2014).

USDA. 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Beltsville, Maryland Available at: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?2415. (Accessed: 15/1/2013).

Witkowski, Z.J., Król, W. and Solarz, W. (eds). 2003. Carpathian List of Endangered Species. pp. 68. WWF and Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Vienna-Krakow.


Citation: Bartha, D. 2014. Crataegus nigra. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 17 September 2014.
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