Gentiana acaulis 

Scope: Global & Europe
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Gentianales Gentianaceae

Scientific Name: Gentiana acaulis L.
Common Name(s):
English Stemless Gentian, Trumpet Gentian
French Gentiane de Koch
Spanish Genciana

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2012-09-20
Assessor(s): Bilz, M.
Reviewer(s): Schippmann, U.
Global and European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)

This species is classified as Least Concern as although it is threatened in parts of its range, it has stable populations in other parts and is unlikely to decline severely in the near future. The overall risk of extinction is low.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Gentiana acaulis is endemic to Europe and found in montane areas in Central and southern Europe. It occurs in the Carpathian Mountains, in the northern Balkan Peninsula, Alps, Apennines, Pyrenees, Cantabrian Mountains and in the Sistema Ibérico (Talaveras et al. 2012).
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Andorra; Austria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; France (France (mainland)); Germany; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Liechtenstein; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Switzerland; Ukraine (Ukraine (main part))
Regionally extinct:
Czech Republic
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):1150
Upper elevation limit (metres):2400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The overall trend of the European population is difficult to determine. It is threatened and probably declining in some countries, but of Least Concern in others. It has been described as one of the most common alpine and sub-alpine Gentian species in Central Europe by other sources (Badarau and Malos 2011).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Gentiana acaulis is a herb that grows in alpine grassland, shrubland, rocky places and forest clearings, on acidic soil (Talaveras et al. 2012, Klotz et al. 2002, Peev and Vladimirov 2011).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The root of this species, gentian root, has various medicinal properties similar to Gentiana lutea (Plants For A Future 2012). Gentian root is prepared as a dry or liquid extract, a tincture or comminuted herbal substance. It is traditionally used in mild dyspeptic and gastrointestinal disorders as well as to treat loss of appetite (European Medicines Agency 2009).

It is likely to be used for ornamental purposes.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Bulgaria, collection of the species has been reported as a threat as well as disturbance by tourists and grazing (Peev and Vladimirov 2011). No other information about threats is available.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is protected at national level in Germany (Bundesamt für Naturschutz 2010) and Bulgaria (Peev and Vladimirov 2011), and regionally protected in France and Switzerland. It is listed in the following national Red Lists:
  • Regionally Extinct in Czech Republic (Holub and Procházka 2000)
  • Critically Endangered in Bulgaria (Peev and Vladimirov 2011)
  • Vulnerable in Germany (level 3 - Ludwig and Schnittler 1996)
  • Data Deficient in Croatia (Nikolić and Topić 2005)
  • Least Concern in Switzerland (Moser et al. 2002)

Some of the Bulgarian sites are included in a national park and in a Natura 2000 site. Seeds for ex situ preservation are collected in Bulgaria (Peev and Vladimirov 2011).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.1. Shrubland - Subarctic
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.3. Shrubland - Boreal
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.1. Grassland - Tundra
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary

♦  Handicrafts, jewellery, etc.

Bibliography [top]

Association Tela Botanica. 2000-2012. Le reseau de la botanique francophone. Available at:

Badarau, A.-S. and Malos, C. 2011. Flora Virtualis Romaniae. Cluj-Napoca Available at:

Bundesamt für Naturschutz. 2010. FloraWeb. Bonn Available at:

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Real Jardín Botánico) and Fundación Biodiversidad (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente). 2012. Anthos. Sistema de información sobre las plantas de España. Madrid Available at:

European Medicines Agency. 2009. Community Herbal Monograph on Gentiana lutea L., radix. In: Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (ed.). London.

Holub, J. and Procházka, F. 2000. Red List of the Flora of the Czech Republic (state in the year 2000) [Červený seznam květeny České republiky (stav v roce 2000)]. Preslia 72: 187-230.

Info Flora. 1994-2012. Das nationale Daten- und Informationszentrum der Schweizer Flora [National Data and Information Centre of the Swiss Flora]. Available at:

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Klotz, S., Kühn, I. and Durka, W. 2002. BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank zu biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen der Gefäßpflanzen in Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde 38.

Ludwig, G. and Schnittler, M. 1996. Red List of Threatened Plants in Germany (Rote Liste gefährdeter Pflanzen Deutschlands). Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Bonn.

Marhold, K. 2011. Gentianaceae. In: Euro+Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Berlin Available at:

Moser, D., Gygax, A., Bäumler, B., Wyler, N. and Palese, R. 2002. Red List of the Threatened Ferns and Flowering Plants of Switzerland (Rote Liste der gefährdeten Farn- und Blütenpflanzen der Schweiz). Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft, Bern; Zentrum des Datenverbundnetzes der Schweizer Flora, Chambésy; Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Chambésy.

Nikolić, T. and Topić, J. (eds). 2005. Red Book of Vascular Flora of Croatia. Ministry of Culture, State Institute for Nature Protection, Republic of Croatia, Zagreb.

Peev, D., Vladimirov, V., Petrova, A.S., Nachev, M., Temniskova, D., Denchev, C.M., Gabeva, A. and Gussev, C. (eds). 2011. Red Data Book of the Republic of Bulgaria. Volume 1 – Plants & Fungi. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences & Ministry of Environment and Water, Sofia.

Šoljan, D., Muratović, E. and Abadžić, S. 2009. Biljke Planina Bosne i Hercegovine [Plants of the Mountains of Bosnia and Herzegovina]. Upoznavanje i određivanje biljaka, Sarajevo.

Talavera, S., Andrés, C., Arista, M., Fernández Piedra, M.P., Gallego, M.J., Ortiz, P.L., Romero-Zarco, C., Salgueiro, F.J., Silvestre, S. and Quintanar, A. (eds). 2012. Flora Iberica. Volume 11. Real Jardín Botaníco, C.S.I.C. Servicio de Publicaciones, Madrid.

Citation: Bilz, M. 2013. Gentiana acaulis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T203217A2762385. . Downloaded on 16 August 2018.
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