|Scientific Name:||Etheostoma sitikuense Blanton, 2008|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Vulnerable because the species occurs in only three locations and its area of occupancy may be less than 20 sq km. Trend is apparently stable. Population size is unknown but small.
|Range Description:||Range includes a small segment of Citico Creek (a tributary of Tellico Lake, an impoundment of the mainstem Little Tennessee River) in Monroe County, Tennessee (Blanton and Jenkins 2008); this population historically extended farther downstream in lower Citico Creek before the stream was inundated by Tellico Lake (D. Etnier, pers. comm., cited by Blanton and Jenkins 2008). This species occurred historically in Abrams Creek, a tributary of Chilhowie Lake also impounding the Little Tennessee River, in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Blount County, Tennessee, where it was known from three specimens collected in 1937 and 1940 below Abrams Falls in the lower reaches of the mainstem of Abrams Creek, along several kilometers upstream of the confluence with the Little Tennessee River (Blanton and Jenkins 2008). Subsequently the species was extirpated and later reintroduced in lower Abrams Creek, below Abrams Falls and also was stocked in the Tellico River using Citico Creek stocks (Rakes and Shute 2005, Shute et al. 2005, Rakes and Shute 2008). There are no known historical records of Etheostoma sitikuense from the Tellico River; the species was stocked downstream of the national park boundary to the Tennessee Hwy 360 bridge (Blanton and Jenkins 2008).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is represented by one remnant population, a reintroduced population, and an introduced population (Blanton and Jenkins 2008).|
Total adult population size is unknown. Page and Burr (2011) categorized this species as rare.
The species appears to be moderately abundant in the small reach occupied in Citico Creek (Shute et al. 2005). The stocked, reintroduced population in Abrams Creek appears to be stable; recruitment has been observed since 1995 (Shute et al. 2005, Rakes and Shute 2008). The status of the stocked Tellico River population is not known (Blanton and Jenkins 2008).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat includes gravel, rubble, and slabrock pools and runs of creeks (Page and Burr 2011). Abrams Creek (Blue Ridge Province) and Citico Creek (Blue Ridge and Ridge and Valley) are moderate-sized streams that are characterized by alternating riffles, runs, and pools with cobble and small boulders (Blanton and Jenkins 2008). In Citico Creek, nests and nest-guarding by nuptial males have been observed beneath slab-rocks in the margins of pools and in swifter runs (Rakes et al. 1992).|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
Known threats to Abrams Creek and Citico Creek include agricultural runoff, sedimentation due to bank erosion, and poor land use practices (Blanton and Jenkins 2008).
This species apparently was extirpated from Abrams Creek by application of rotenone throughout the tributary system below Abrams Falls during 1957, a plan designed to reduce food and habitat competition for a rainbow trout fishery (Lennon and Parker 1959).
The existing populations are separated by large mainstem impoundments and cold tailwaters (Blanton and Jenkins 2008).
|Conservation Actions:||Blanton and Jenkins (2008) reported the following protection and management/monitoring needs: The extremely limited distribution of Etheostoma sitikuense and the known extirpation of past populations point to the need for federal protection. Continued monitoring of habitat quality, land use practices, and population status are recommended. A recovery plan that focuses on these factors and includes goals to alleviate impacts to these stream reaches is needed. While continued propagation may be beneficial to the long-term survival of the species, further translocation outside the species known native range is not recommended. The distribution of the introduced E. sitikuense population in Tellico River should be closely monitored to ensure it does not encroach on the distinct, isolated population of Fintail Darter occurring above the falls in the upper Tellico River.|
Blanton, R.E. and Jenkins, R.E. 2008. Three new darter species of the Etheostoma percnurum species complex (Percidae, subgenus Catonotus) from the Tennessee and Cumberland river drainages. Zootaxa 1963: 1-24.
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
Jelks, H.L., Walsh, S.J., Burkhead, N.M., Contreras-Balderas, S., Díaz-Pardo, E., Hendrickson, D.A., Lyons, J., Mandrak, N.E., McCormick, F., Nelson, J.S., Platania, S.P., Porter, B.A., Renaud, C.B., Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, J., Taylor, E.B. and Warren, M.L., Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8): 372-407.
Lennon, R.E. and Parker, P.S. 1959. The reclamation of Indian and Abrams creeks, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Page, L.M. and Burr, B.M. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, Massachusetts.
Rakes, P.L. and Shute, J.R. 2005. Rare fish reintroductions to the Tellico River: 2004. Progress Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Cookeville, Tennessee.
Rakes, P.L. and Shute, J.R. 2008. Captive propagation and population monitoring of rare southeastern fishes in Tennessee: 2007. Final Report for 2007 field season and second quarter report for fiscal year 2008. Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Cookeville and Asheville Field Offices, Cherokee National Forest, and International Paper.
Rakes, P.L., Shute, J.R. and Shute, P.W. 1992. Quarterly report for captive propagation of the duskytail darter (Etheostoma (Catonotus) sp.). Report to Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Asheville Field Office, Cherokee National Forest, National Park Service, Great Smoky Mountains National Park.
Shute, J.R., Rakes, P.L. and Shute, P.W. 2005. Reintroduction of four imperiled fishes in Abrams Creek, Tennessee. Southeastern Naturalist 4: 93-110.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Determination of endangered status for the duskytail darter, paleozone shiner and pygmy madtom. Federal Register 58(79): 25758-25763.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Duskytail darter recovery plan. USFWS, Atlanta, Georgia.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2001. Proposed establishment of nonessential experimental population status for 4 fishes into the Tellico River, from the backwaters of Tellico Reservoir upstream to Tellico River Mile 33, in Monroe County, Tennessee. Federal Register 66: 30853-30860.
|Citation:||NatureServe. 2013. Etheostoma sitikuense. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T202533A18228968.Downloaded on 20 June 2018.|
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