|Scientific Name:||Cyprinodon arcuatus|
|Species Authority:||Minckley and Miller, 2002|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Extinct ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
It is listed as Extinct because the species has not been detected for several decades, despite ample survey efforts.
|Range Description:||Its historical range included the upper Santa Cruz River basin (Gila River drainage), Arizona and probably Sonora (Minckley et al. 2002, Minckley and Marsh 2009). Attempts to maintain captive stock failed in 1971 (Miller et al. 1989).|
Regionally extinct:Mexico; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
It is probably extinct. Minckley et al. (2002) speculated that there is a possibility that an unknown captive stock exists somewhere in the tank(s) of a fish hobbyist.
See Minckley et al. (1991) for an extensive account of the history of this species and of Monkey Spring.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Its habitat included springs and their effluents (Page and Burr 2011). This species was known from the margins of an artificial pond fed by an irrigation canal from Monkey Spring. Under natural conditions this species probably lived in marshes formed upstream from an extensive travertine terrace (Minckley 1973).|
|Use and Trade:||This species was not utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species was a victim of water depletion caused by increasing aridity, channel incision (arroyo cutting), groundwater pumping for irrigation, and flow diversion for domestic use (Minckley et al. 2002). Monkey Spring (the occupied habitat) was altered into a pond and canal about a century ago. Extirpation occurred in the late 1960s during the repair and modification of an irrigation system fed by Monkey Spring, combined with predation resulting from unauthorized introduction of largemouth bass (Minckley and Marsh 2009).|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is extinct and cannot benefit from any protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.|
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
Miller, R.R., Williams, J.D. and Williams, J.E. 1989. Extinctions of North American fishes during the past century. Fisheries 14(6): 22-38.
Minckley, W.L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona.
Minckley, W.L. and Deacon, J.E. 1991. Battle Against Extinction: Native Fish Management in the American West. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.
Minckley, W.L. and Marsh, P.C. 2009. Inland fishes of the greater Southwest: chronicle of a vanishing biota. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.
Minckley, W.L., Meffe, G.K. and Soltz, D.L. 1991. Conservation and management of short-lived fishes: the cyprinodontoids. In: W.L. Minckley and J.E. Deacon (eds) (eds), Battle Against Extinction: Native Fish Management in the American West, pp. 247-282. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.
Minckley, W.L., Miller, R.R. and Norris, S.M. 2002. Three new pupfish species, Cyprinodon (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae), from Chihuahua, Mexico, and Arizona, USA. Copeia 2002: 687-705.
Nelson, J.S., Crossman, E.J., Espinosa-Perez, H., Findley, L.T., Gilbert, C.R., Lea, R.N. and Williams, J.D. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.
Page, L.M. and Burr, B.M. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, Massachusetts.
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Cyprinodon arcuatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 July 2014.|
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