|Scientific Name:||Ephedra foeminea|
Ephedra campylopoda C.A.Mey.
Ephedra fragilis Desf. subspecies campylopoda (C.A.Mey.) K.Richt.
Ephedra macedonica Kosanin
Ephedra campylopoda C.A.Mey.
Ephedra fragilis subsp. campylopoda (C.A.Mey.) K.Richt.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bell, A. & Bachman, S.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hilton-Taylor, C. & Lutz, M.L.|
E. foeminea is widespread and has a stable population at present. No significant threats have been identified so a rating of Least Concern is given.
|Range Description:||Distributed across the southeastern Mediterranean from Italy and Greece to Cyprus, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan. Extends further south to Sinai, Saudi Arabia and Yemen. More recently it has been reported from northeast Africa in Eritrea and Djibouti (Freitag and Maier-Stolte 2003). A disjunct population from Libya was also reported in Browicz (1991). Occurs from sea level up to 2,600 m.|
Native:Albania; Bulgaria; Cyprus; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Greece (East Aegean Is., Kriti); Israel; Italy; Jordan; Lebanon; Libya; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey; Yemen
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||2600|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Is rare to abundant across its range.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||A climbing or scrambling shrub, found in a variety of habitats from sparse maquis, phrygana to Mediterranean woodlands (including Juniperus phoenicea). Occurs on cliffs, in ravines and on bare rocks. Flowers from March to November and fruits August to January.|
|Use and Trade:||The stems of most members of this genus contain the alkaloid ephedrine and are valuable in the treatment of asthma and many other complaints of the respiratory system (Plants for a Future 2010).|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats known at present.|
|Conservation Actions:||Throughout its range it overlaps numerous protected areas. Samples can be found growing in at least ten botanic gardens and samples have been collected for ex situ conservation as part of the Millennium Seed Bank project.|
Berkeley Natural History Museum. 2009. Berkeley Natural History Museum database. Available at: http://bnhm.berkeley.edu/query/index.php?ucbg=true.
Browicz, K. (ed.). 1991. Chorology of Trees and Shrubs in South-west Asia and Adjacent Regions. Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw.
Caveney, S., Charlet, D.A., Freitag, H., Maier-Stolte, M. and Starratt, A.N. 2001. New observations on the secondary chemistry of world Ephedra (Ephedraceae). American Journal of Botany 88(7): 1199-1208.
Freitag, H. and Maier-Stolte, M. 1989. The Ephedra species of P.Forsskål: identify and typification. Taxon 38(4): 545-556.
Freitag, H. and Maier-Stolte, M. 2003. The genus Ephedra in NE Tropical Africa. Kew Bulletin 58: 415-426.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).
Karagiannakidou, V. and Raus, T. 1996. Vascular plants from Mount Chortialis (Makedonia, Greece). Willdenowia 25(2): 487-559.
Plants for a Future. 1996-2010. Plants For A Future, Earth, Plants, People. Available at: http://www.pfaf.org/user/plantsearch.aspx.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. 2009. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Available at: http://www.kew.org/wcsp/.
|Citation:||Bell, A. & Bachman, S. 2011. Ephedra foeminea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T201710A9171016. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.|
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