|Scientific Name:||Ephedra foliata|
|Species Authority:||Boiss. ex C.A.Mey.|
Ephedra alte C.A.Mey.
Ephedra ciliata Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
Ephedra foliata Boiss. ex C.A.Mey. subspecies aitchisonii Stapf
Ephedra rollandii Maire
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bell, A. & Bachman, S.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hilton-Taylor, C. & Lutz, M.L.|
A widespread species and with no perceived threats at present. Occurs in numerous protected areas across the range and is known from recent collections indicating the species is still extant and the population is stable. Hence is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Distributed in northwest and eastern Africa and widespread across the Arabian Peninsula, extending east to India (Saharo-Sindian/Irano-Turanian distribution; Freitag and Maier-Stolte 2003). Occurs from sea level up to 1,700 m.|
Native:Afghanistan; Algeria; Bahrain; Chad; Djibouti; Egypt (Egypt (African part), Sinai); Ethiopia; India (Punjab); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Jordan; Kuwait; Mauritania; Morocco; Oman; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; Turkmenistan; United Arab Emirates; Western Sahara; Yemen (North Yemen, South Yemen)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Is common to uncommon depending on the area. It has been recorded in low numbers in protected areas in Iran.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||A shrub, climbing/scrambling, occurring on rocky slopes and wadi-sides. Noted as a typical component of different types of thorn savanna in semi-arid and arid climates (Freitag and Maier-Stolte 2003). Flowers from February to May.|
|Use and Trade:||The stems of most members of this genus contain the alkaloid ephedrine and are valuable in the treatment of asthma and many other complaints of the respiratory system (Plants for a Future 2010). However, E. foliata is reported to have little or no ephedrine. The crushed boiled plant is used for tanning (Norton et al. 2009).|
|Major Threat(s):||Used medicinally and fruit is eaten as a dessert or as famine food, although these are not considered to be major threats.|
|Conservation Actions:||Occurs in numerous protected areas across its range. Collections are known from at least five botanical gardens and seed has been collected for ex situ storage as part of the Millennium Seed Bank project.|
Chaudhri, I.I. 1963. Distribution of gymnosperms in western Pakistan. Vegetatio 11(5/6): 415-426.
Ewan, J. 1991. Review: Untitled. Taxon 40(3): 537.
Freitag, H. and Maier-Stolte, M. 1994. Ephedraceae. In: K. Browicz (ed.) (ed.), Chorology of the Trees and Shrubs in South-west Asia and Adjacent Regions, pp. 5-16 & 39-52. Bogucki Publishers, Poznan, Poland.
Freitag, H. and Maier-Stolte, M. 2003. The genus Ephedra in NE Tropical Africa. Kew Bulletin 58: 415-426.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).
Mehrabian, A., Naquinezhad, A., Mahiny, A.S., Mostafavi, H. and Kouchekzadeh, M. 2009. Vegetation mapping of the Mond protected area of Bushehr Province (South-west Iran). Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 51(3): 251-260.
Miller, A.G. and Cope, T.A. 1996. Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
Norton, J., Abdul Majid, S., Allan, D., Al Safran, M., Boer, B. and Richer, R. 2009. An Illustrated Checklist of the Flora of Qatar. Ashford Colour Press, Gosport, UK.
Plants for a Future. 1996-2010. Plants For A Future, Earth, Plants, People. Available at: http://www.pfaf.org/user/plantsearch.aspx.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. 2009. Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL). Available at: www.kew.org/ceb/sepasal. (Accessed: 03/02/2009).
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. 2009. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Available at: http://www.kew.org/wcsp/.
Termeh, F. and Moussavi, M. 1982. Plants of Kish Island, Iran. Willdenowia 12(2): 253-286.
|Citation:||Bell, A. & Bachman, S. 2011. Ephedra foliata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 August 2015.|
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