Sciurus niger 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Rodentia Sciuridae

Scientific Name: Sciurus niger Linnaeus, 1758
Common Name(s):
English Bryant's Fox Squirrel, Delmarva Fox Squirrel, Eastern Fox Squirrel, Fox Squirrel

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-08-05
Assessor(s): Linzey, A.V., Timm, R., Emmons, L. & Reid, F.
Reviewer(s): Amori, G.
This species is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is native throughout much of the eastern United States and very limited areas of adjoining Canada (extreme southern prairie provinces) and Mexico (occurs along the Rio Grande and its tributaries in northeastern Coahuila y Nuevo Leon (Ceballos and Oliva 2005)). It has been introduced to several western U.S. states and two Canadian provinces (British Columbia and Ontario).
Countries occurrence:
Canada (British Columbia - Introduced, Manitoba, Ontario - Introduced, Saskatchewan); Mexico (Coahuila); United States (Alabama, Arkansas, California - Introduced, Colorado, Connecticut - Regionally Extinct, Delaware, District of Columbia - Possibly Extinct, Florida, Georgia, Idaho - Introduced, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana - Introduced, Nebraska, New Jersey - Regionally Extinct, New Mexico - Present - Origin Uncertain, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon - Introduced, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington - Introduced, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming - Introduced)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Abundant. Reported densities vary from 0.04 - 0.12 individuals/ha in the southeastern U.S. to 1.0 - 12 individuals/ha in the mid-west.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species prefers open woodland habitats, with scattered trees and open understory.
Generation Length (years):4-5

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No major threats known. Although not considered a major threat at this time, this species is experiencing declining habitats in eastern states, with an increasingly restricted distribution. By contrast, range expansion has occurred in the mid-west. In Mexico, it may be considered fragile, but is not officially threatened (Ceballos and Oliva 2005).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Occurs in many protected areas.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
1. Forest -> 1.7. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education

Bibliography [top]

Ceballos, G. and Oliva, G. 2005. Los mamíferos silvestres de México. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad and Fondo de Cultura Económica, México.

Hafner, D.J., Yensen, E. and Kirkland, G.L., Jr. 1998. Status survey and conservation action plan - North American Rodents. IUCN/SSC Rodent Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

Koprowski, J. L. 1994. Sciurus niger. Mammalian Species 479: 1-9.

Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.

Wilson, D.E. and Ruff, S. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Citation: Linzey, A.V., Timm, R., Emmons, L. & Reid, F. 2016. Sciurus niger. In: (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T20016A115155257. . Downloaded on 21 June 2018.
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