|Scientific Name:||Saguinus tripartitus|
|Species Authority:||(Milne-Edwards, 1878)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Hershkovitz (1977) regarded this species as a subspecies of S. fuscicollis. Thorington (1988) concluded that the form tripartitus occurs on the right bank of the lower Río Napo where it would be sympatric with S. f. lagonotus and consequently that it was a distinct species. However, there is still no evidence that it is actually sympatric with S. f. lagonotus. Rylands et al. (1993, 2000) and Groves (2001, 2005) listed it as a species, but a re-evaluation of the evidence for its distribution indicates that both Hershkovitz (1977) and Thorington (1988) may have been wrong (Heymann 2000; Rylands and Heymann in prep.), and sympatry between S. f. lagonotus and S. tripartitus has yet to be confirmed.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||de la Torre, S. & Cornejo, F.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Near Threatened in light of a projected future decline of around 25% over the course of 3 generations (18 years) due primarily to anticipated high rates of deforestation. Almost qualifies as threatened under criterion A3c.
|Range Description:||A species of the upper Amazon, found between the Rios Curaray and Napo in Peru, and the right bank of the Napo in Ecuador (Heymann 2000; Heymann et al. 2002). The western limits to the distribution of this species in Ecuador are not clearly defined, but Albúja (1994) extended it as far as the middle reaches of the Ríos Tiputini and Curaray (S. f. lagonotus occurs at the headwaters of the Río Curaray), the upper Río Cononaco, and the entire basins of the Ríos Yasuní and Nashiño. S. de la Torre (in litt., 1996) has observed Golden-mantle Saddleback Tamarins between the Ríos Yasuní and Indillama. Tirira (2007) stated that it occurs up to 400 m above sea level in Ecuador in the western limits of its range.|
Native:Ecuador (Ecuador (mainland)); Peru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Soini et al. (1989) reported that this species is common in Peru, and Aquino and Encarnación (1994) indicated that it is relatively abundant. Aquino et al. (2005) recorded a population density, based on 17 groups, of 13.5 individuals/km² in the Río Aushiri basin, Peru.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The Golden-mantle Saddleback Tamarin occurs in Amazonian lowland, terra firma and seasonally flooded forest, riparian forest, remnant forests or fringe patches, and secondary forest (Snowdon and Soini 1988; Tirira 2007).
Marmosets and tamarins are distinguished from the other monkeys of the New World by their small size, modified claws rather than nails on all digits except the big toe, the presence of two as opposed to three molar teeth in either side of each jaw, and by the occurrence of twin births. They eat fruits, flowers, nectar, plant exudates (gums, saps, latex) and animal prey (including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects). Marmosets have morphological and behavioural adaptations for gouging trees trunks, branches and vines of certain species to stimulate the flow of gum, which they eat, and in some species form a notable component of the diet. The dentition of the tamarins (Saguinus and Leontopithecus) does not provide for gouging and they eat gums only when readily available.
Tamarins live in extended family groups of between four and 15 individuals, but usually 2-8. Aquino et al. (2005) recorded an average group size of 5.3 individuals (n=14, range 4-8). Kostrub (1997, 2002) observed groups of 4-7 individuals (n=10) in the Yasuní National Park.
Tamarins are monomorphic - exhibiting only minor differences in body and canine size.
|Major Threat(s):||The forests where S. tripartitus occurs along the Río Yasuní in Ecuador are remote and have to date suffered little impact from human activities, other than small localized encampments for petroleum prospecting (Albúja 1994). However, the occurrence of petroleum in the region, resulting in the current construction of the Pompeya-Iro highway, is reason for some concern for the future of these forests and their wildlife.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species occurs in the Yasuní National Park (982,300 ha) in Ecuador (Albuja 1994; Kostrub 1997; Tirira 2007). It is not recorded from any protected areas in Peru (Aquino and Encarnación 1994). It is listed on CITES Appendix II.|
Albúja, L. 1994. Nuevos registros de Saguinus tripartitus en la Amazonia ecuatoriana. Neotropical Primates 2(2): 8-10.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Primates of Peru / Los Primates del Perú. Primate Report 40: 1-127.
Aquino, R., Ique, C. and Gálvez, H. 2005. Reconocimiento preliminar de la densidad y estructura poblacional de Saguinus tripartitus Milne-Eduards en la Amazonía peruana. Revista Peruana de Biologia 12(3): 435-440.
de la Torre, S. 1996. Notes on the distributions of Ecuadorian callitrichids. Neotropical Primates 4(3): 88.
Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World monkeys (Platyrrhini), with an introduction to Primates. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Heymann, E. W. 2000. Field observations of the golden-mantled tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus, on the Río Curaray, Peruvian Amazonia. Folia Primatologica 71(6): 392-398.
Heymann, E. W., Encarnación C. F. and Canaquin, Y. J. E. 2002. Primates of the Río Curaray, northern Peruvian Amazon. International Journal of Primatology 23(1): 191-201.
Kostrub, C. E. 1997. Preliminary field observations of golden-mantled tamarins, Saguinus tripartitus, in eastern Ecuador. Neotropical Primates 5(4): 102-103.
Kostrub, C. E. 2002. Inter-group variation in ranging patterns in golden-mantled tamarins, Saguinus tripartitus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 34: 97.
Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1993. Systematics, distributions, and some notes on the conservation status of the Callitrichidae. In: A. B. Rylands (ed.), Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour and Ecology, pp. 11-77. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mittermeier, R. A., Groves, C. P. and Rodríguez-Luna, E. 2000. An assessment of the diversity of New World primates. Neotropical Primates 8(2): 61-93.
Snowdon, C. T. and Soini, P. 1988. The tamarins, genus Saguinus. In: R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds), Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, pp. 223-298. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA.
Soini, P., Aquino, R., Encarnación, F., Moya, L. and Tapia, J. 1989. Situation of the primates in the Peruvian Amazon. In: C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I. B. Santos (eds), In La Primatologia en Latinoamerica, pp. 13-21. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA.
Thorington Jr., R. W. 1988. Taxonomic status of Saguinus tripartitus (Milne Edwards, 1878). American Journal of Primatology 15: 367-371.
Tirira, D. 2001. Libro Rojo de los Mamíferos del Ecuador. Sociedad para la Investigación y Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad Ecuatoriana (SIMBIOE) / Ecociencias / Ministerio del Ambiente / UICN. Publicación Especial sobre los Mamíferos del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
Tirira, D.G. 2007. Guía de Campo de los Mamíferos del Ecuador. Ediciones Murciélago Blanco. Publicación especial sobre los mamíferos del Ecuador 6, Quito, Ecuador.
|Citation:||de la Torre, S. & Cornejo, F. 2008. Saguinus tripartitus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 December 2014.|
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