|Scientific Name:||Myxine fernholmi|
|Species Authority:||Wisner & McMillan, 1995|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B., Knapp, L. & Carpenter, K.E.|
This species is only known from four specimens from the southwestern Atlantic. Observations from scientific surveys suggest that this fish is abundant but this cannot be confirmed until proper identification is conducted. Although extensive trawling occurs around the Falklands Islands, recent restrictions have limited the number of boats and depth at which trawls are operation. Similarly, few specimens of this species are being recorded in in bycatch. Currently it is listed as Least Concern, however more information is needed on this species distribution, population status, life history, biology, and impact of any potential major threats.
|Range Description:||This species is located around the Falkland Islands and Burdwood Bank. One specimen (SIO 90-139) was collected off San Antonio (central Chile), at 33°39'S, 72°09.5'W (Wisner and McMillan 1995).|
Native:Chile; Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – southwest; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The population is only known from 4 specimens for this species: three specimens are from around the Falklands Islands and only one specimen is from San Antonio in Central Chile (Wisner and McMillan 1995).
It is worth noting that during a deep-sea investigation on the scavenging fauna of the Patagonian slope (900-1,750 m), east of Falkland Islands, high density of hagfishes were recorded by Collins et al. (1999). Using a deep-sea camera, hagfish were seen during six of the 10 experiments, between depths from 900-1,212 m. The absolute number of specimens was hard to determine, but over 200 were visible in single frames (45 m²). According to Collins et al. (1999), species identification was not possible, though it is likely that they were Myxine fernholmi, distinguished by a prominent ventral finfold that was clearly visible in the photographs; Myxine knappi, also reported from Falkland Islands, has a very small ventral finfold. However, it is possible that more than one species has been sampled.
According to the footage, it is suggested that this species is common.
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is found on upper slopes at depths from 135-400 m (Falkland Islands), and also at bathyal zone from 1,170-1,480 m depth (off San Antonio). Maximum size: 846 mm total length (TL) (Wisner and McMillan 1995).
The copulatory organ is absent in this species. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Patzner 1998).
|Major Threat(s):||There are no known direct threats to this species. However, bottom finfish trawlers that trawl from 200-1,500 m depth (Moore 1999) are operating around the Falklands Islands, but the majority of demersal trawlers in the region are restricted to operating over shelf waters (<200m depth), and the number of boats operating within the 200 nautical mile Falklands Conservation Zone is limited to about 200 vessels per year (Coggan et al. 1996).|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures in place, but more research is needed on this species' biology, population size, distribution and the impact of finfish trawling activities.|
Coggan, R.A., Nolan, C.P., George, M.J.A. 1996. Exploratory deep-sea fishing in the Falkland Islands, south-western Atlantic. Journal of Fish Biology 49(Supplement A): 298-310.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 16 June 2011).
Mincarone, M.M. and Soto, J.M.R. 2001. First record of southern hagfish Myxine australis (Myxinidae) in Brazilian waters. Mare Magnum 1(2): 125-127.
Moore, J.A. 1999. Deep sea finfish fisheries: A lesson from history. Fisheries 24(7): 16-21.
Patzner, R.A. 1998. Gonads and reproduction in hagfishes. In: J.M. Jørgensen, J.P. Lomholt, R.E. Weber, and H. Malte (eds), The biology of hagfishes, pp. 378-395. Chapman & Hall, London.
Wisner, R.L. and McMillan, C.B. 1995. Review of new world hagfishes of the genus *Myxine* (Agnatha, Myxinidae) with descriptions of nine new species. Fisheries Bulletin 93(3): 530-550.
|Citation:||Mincarone, M.M. 2013. Myxine fernholmi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 May 2015.|
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