Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Myxini Myxiniformes Myxinidae

Scientific Name: Myxine debueni
Species Authority: Wisner & McMillan, 1995

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2009-11-11
Assessor(s): Mincarone, M.M.
Reviewer(s): Polidoro, B., Knapp, L. & Carpenter, K.E.
This species is only known from the holotype and paratype collected in the Straits of Magellan, and has not been recorded since 1970. Although this is not a heavily surveyed area, localized threats such as shipping, dredging, and fishing activities may pose a threat to this species. It is listed as Data Deficient. More information is needed on this species distribution, population, biology, life history and impact of potential threats.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known only from the type locality, northeast of Dawson Island, Strait of Magellan (Wisner and McMillan 1995).
Countries occurrence:
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – southeast
Lower depth limit (metres): 302
Upper depth limit (metres): 300
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is only known from the holotype and paratype. The last collected record dates back to 1970 but this is not a heavily surveyed area.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The only two specimens known were taken at mid-channel waters, from 300-302 m depth (Wisner and McMillan 1995).

The copulatory organ is absent for this species. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Patzner 1998).
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no known direct threats to this species, but indirect threats from shipping activity and localized fishing likely exist.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures in place, but more research is needed on this species' biology, population size, distribution and the impact of small-scale fishing and shipping activity.

Classifications [top]

11. Marine Deep Benthic -> 11.1. Marine Deep Benthic - Continental Slope/Bathyl Zone (200-4,000m) -> 11.1.2. Soft Substrate
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: (Accessed: 16 June 2011).

Mincarone, M.M. and Soto, J.M.R. 2001. First record of southern hagfish Myxine australis (Myxinidae) in Brazilian waters. Mare Magnum 1(2): 125-127.

Patzner, R.A. 1998. Gonads and reproduction in hagfishes. In: J.M. Jørgensen, J.P. Lomholt, R.E. Weber, and H. Malte (eds), The biology of hagfishes, pp. 378-395. Chapman & Hall, London.

Wisner, R.L. and McMillan, C.B. 1995. Review of new world hagfishes of the genus *Myxine* (Agnatha, Myxinidae) with descriptions of nine new species. Fisheries Bulletin 93(3): 530-550.

Citation: Mincarone, M.M. 2013. Myxine debueni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T196053A8998887. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
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