|Scientific Name:||Rhinolophus hipposideros|
|Species Authority:||(Bechstein, 1800)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Jacobs, D., Cotterill, F.P.D., Taylor, P.J., Aulagnier, S., Juste, J., Spitzenberger, F. & Hutson, A.M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Temple, H. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
This species has a large range. Although there have been marked and well-documented declines in some areas, the species remains widespread, fairly common, and apparently stable in other areas. Assessed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Rhinolophus hipposideros is widely distributed in the western and central Palaearctic. It is found in all the European countries (including the islands) of the Mediterranean region. In North Africa it is recorded from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and the eastern part of the Sinai (to Egypt); also occurs in eastern Africa. Also recorded from Anatolia and the countries of the Levant. It occurs from sea level to 2,000 m.|
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Djibouti; Egypt (Sinai); Eritrea; Ethiopia; France (Corsica); Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece (Kriti); Holy See (Vatican City State); Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy (Sardegna, Sicilia); Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Lebanon; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; San Marino; Saudi Arabia; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Baleares); Sudan; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan
Regionally extinct:Liechtenstein; Netherlands
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
An infrequent species in the northern part of its range. In Europe the species forms summer colonies of 10-50 individuals (up to 1,500 animals). Solitary in winter or loose aggregations up to 500 animals per roost. Since the 1950s the northern border of the range in western and central Europe has moved to the south. In the Netherlands, northern Belgium and Germany with the exception of a few colonies in Bavaria, Thüringen, Sachsen and Sachsen-Anhalt the species went extinct (Fairon et al. 1982, Schofield 1999). It disappeared from northern and western parts of Bohemia, and much of Poland where 87% of the hibernating population was lost between 1950 and 1990 (Urbanczyk 1994, Ohlendorf 1997). In Switzerland and Austria the distribution became fragmented, as colonies remained only in higher elevations (>400 m) (Stutz and Haffner 1984, Spitzenberger 2002), although in Switzerland at least the population has started to slowly recover over the last 10 years (increasing from 2,200 to 2,500 adults counted in maternity roosts: H. Kraettli pers. comm. 2006). In Spain some colonies have disappeared due to the restoration of buildings, but there are no data on population trend (J. Juste and T. Alcalde pers. comm. 2006), and in France there have been some declines in the north, although large populations in the south are thought to be more stable (EMA Workshop 2006).
In the southwest Asian part of the range it gathers in wintering colonies of up to 40 animals, although it is mainly solitary (K. Tsytsulina pers. comm. 2005). In Turkey it is a commonly reported species, and the population is stable (A. Karatash pers. comm. 2005). It is common in Iran although encountered less frequently than R. ferrumequinum (M. Sharifi pers. comm. 2005). It is not known how abundant this species is in Jordan and Syria but it may be more common than the collection reports indicate (Amr 2000).
Size and trends within Africa and South Asia are unknown.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Forages close to ground within and along the edges of broadleaf deciduous woodland, riparian vegetation, Mediterranean and sub-mediterranean shrubland. Feeds mainly on midges, moths and craneflies. Summer roosts (breeding colonies): natural and artificial underground sites in the southern part of the range, attics and buildings in the northern part. Winter: hibernates in underground sites (including cellars, small caves and burrows). Sedentary, winter and summer roosts usually within 5-10 km (longest distance recorded 153 km: Heymer 1964 in Hutterer et al. 2005).|
|Major Threat(s):||Threats include disturbance and loss of underground habitats and attics (conversion of attics in human habitat), agricultural intensification, fragmentation and isolation of habitats, and the use of pesticides in agricultural areas.|
Protected by national legislation in all European range states. There are international legal obligations for protection through Bonn Convention (Eurobats) and Bern Convention, where those apply. Included in Annex II (and IV) of EU Habitats and Species Directive and hence requiring special measures for conservation including designation of Special Areas for Conservation. Some habitat protection through Natura 2000. Recommended conservation measures include protecting maternity roosting sites, hibernation caves and foraging habitats.
No specific conservation measures apply in South Asia; more research and monitoring is needed.
Amr, Z. S. 2000. Mammals of Jordan. Jordan Country Study of Biological Diversity. United Nations Environment Program and Global Environment Fund Project, Amman, Jordan.
Aulagnier, S. and Thevenot, M. 1986. Catalogue des mammiferes sauvages du Maroc. Travaux de L'Institut Scientifique, Rabat, Serie Zoologie 41: 1-164.
Fairon, J., Gilson, R., Jooris, R., Faber, T. and Meisch, C. 1982. Cartographie provisoire de la faune chiroptérologique belgo-luxembourgeoise. Bulletin de l' Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 7: 1-125.
Hutterer, R., Ivanova, T., Meyer-Cord, Ch. and Rodrigues, L. 2005. Bat Migrations in Europe. Naturschutz und Biologische Vielfalt 28: 162.
Ohlendorf, B. 1997. Arbeitskreis Fledermäuse Sachsen-Anhalts e. v.: Tagungsband "Zur Situation der Hufeisennasen in Europa". Nebra 1995. IFA Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
Schofield, H. W. 1999. Rhinolophus hipposideros. In: A. J. Mitchell-Jones, G. Amori, W. Bogdanowicz, B. Kryštufek, P. J. H. Reijnders, F. Spitzenberger, M. Stubbe, J. B. M. Thissen, V. Vohralík and J. Zima (eds), The Atlas of European Mammals, Academic Press, London, UK.
Spitzenberger F. 2002. Die Säugetierfauna Österreichs. Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft. Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft, Band.
Stutz, H. P. and Haffner, M. 1984. Arealverlust und Bertandesrückgang der Kleinen Hufeisennase Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800) (Mammalia : Chiroptera) in der Schweitz. -Jber. Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 101: 169-178.
Urbanczyk, Z. 1994. Current situation of bat protection in Poland. Abstract, Symposium “Current problems of bat protection in Central and eastern Europe”. Bonn, Germany.
|Citation:||Jacobs, D., Cotterill, F.P.D., Taylor, P.J., Aulagnier, S., Juste, J., Spitzenberger, F. & Hutson, A.M. 2008. Rhinolophus hipposideros. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 October 2014.|
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