|Scientific Name:||Rhinoderma rufum (Philippi, 1902)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) D ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Veloso, A., Charrier, A., Cuevas, C., Correa, C., Soto, C., Díaz-Paéz, H., Nunez, H., Mendez, M., Formas, R. & Díaz, S.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hobin, L. & Superina, M.|
Listed as Critically Endangered, Possibly Extinct, because the species has not been recorded since 1981 in spite of intense attempts to find it in its historical range. The habitat where it formerly occurred has been destroyed, and chytridiomycosis has been identified in historical collections and may well have played a significant role in its disappearance. Nevertheless, the reasons for the sudden decline of this species remain unclear.
|Date last seen:||1981|
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species once occurred in Chile from Zapallar (Valparaíso region) to Ramadillas (Bíobío region), at elevations of 0-500 m asl (Soto-Azat et al. 2013). Its area of occurrence was 46,491 km2.|
Possibly extinct:Chile (Biobío, Maule, O'Higgins, Valparaíso)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It formerly occurred in small, isolated subpopulations, and was fairly regularly seen until around 1978. Hamburg Museum has a jar with 181 individuals collected in only 2 days in Chiguayante, Bíobío region (Soto-Azat et al. 2013). However, since 1981 there have been no confirmed reports despite several attempts to locate the species, giving rise to fears that it might be extinct; the last record was from Río Ramadillas.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It has been recorded in leaf-litter in temperate mixed forests, and also in small streams surrounded by forests. Females lay their eggs in the leaf-litter. When the larvae inside the eggs begin to move, adult males ingest the eggs and incubate them in their vocal sacs, where the larvae develop until they are regurgitated into streams where metamorphosis takes place.|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||There are no records of this species being utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||The destruction of the native vegetation through the planting of pine plantations and for the building of second homes probably impacts this species. However this is unlikely to explain its disappearance completely, the causes of which are not fully understood. Declines that have taken place within suitable habitat might be the result of threats such as climate change or disease. Chytridiomycosis is probably implicated in the enigmatic disappearance of this species (Soto-Azat et al. 2013).|
It is not known from any protected area, as there are none within its historical range.
The species might well be extinct, but further survey work is urgently required to determine whether or not this is the case.
Díaz-Páez, H. and Ortiz, J.C. 2003. Evaluación del estado de conservación de los anfibios en Chile. Assessment of the conservation status of amphibians in Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 76: 509-525.
Formas, J.R. 1995. Anfibios. In: J.M. Simonetti, T.K. Arroyo, TA. Spotorno and E. Loz (eds), Diversidad Biológica de Chile, Comisión nacional de ciencia y tecnología (CONICYT), Santiago-Chile.
Formas, J.R., Pugin, E. and Jorquera, B. 1975. La identidad del batracio chileno Heminectes rufus Philippi 1902. Physis (Argentina): 147-157.
Glade, A. 1993. Red List of Chilean Terrestrial vertebrates. Corporación nacional forestal (CONAF), Santiago-Chile.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Servicio Agrícola Ganadero. 1998. Cartilla de caza. Imp. I. Flores, Santiago de Chile.
Soto-Azat, C., Valenzuela-Sánchez, A., Clarke, B.T., Busse, K., Ortiz, J.C., Barrientos, C. and Cunningham, A.A. 2013. Is chytridiomycosis driving Darwin's frogs to extinction? PLOS One 8(11): e79862.
Soto-Azat, C., Valenzuela-Sánchez, A., Collen, B., Rowcliffe, J.M., Veloso, A. and Cunningham, A.A. 2013. The population decline and extinction of Darwin's frogs. PLOS One 8(6): e66957.
Veloso, A. and Navarro, J. 1988. Lista Sistemática y distribución geográfica de anfibios y reptiles de Chile. Bollettino del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali - Torino 6(2): 481-539.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Rhinoderma rufum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T19514A79809567.Downloaded on 23 November 2017.|
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