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Rhinoderma darwinii 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Cycloramphidae

Scientific Name: Rhinoderma darwinii Duméril & Bibron, 1841
Common Name(s):
English Darwin's Frog
Spanish Rana Narigona, Ranita De Darwin, Sapito Partero, Sapito Vaquero
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2ace ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-11-17
Assessor(s): Carmen Úbeda, Alberto Veloso, Herman Núñez, Esteban Lavilla
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Justification:
Listed as Vulnerable because of an observed population decline, estimated to be more than 30% over the last ten years, based on a reduction in area of occupancy, habitat destruction and degradation, and possibly other unidentified threats.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the austral forest of Chile and Argentina. Historically, it was distributed in Chile from Concepción Province to Palena Province. In Argentina, it is known from Neuquén and Río Negro provinces. It has an altitudinal range of 50-1,100 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Argentina; Chile
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):50
Upper elevation limit (metres):1100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Recent surveys within the range of Rhinoderma darwinii in Chile reveal that some populations (including those in national parks and other preserved areas) have disappeared entirely (M. Crump and A. Veloso pers. comm.). In other areas, the density of frogs is much lower than 10 or 20 years ago (M. Crump pers. comm.). Forestry operations have destroyed large areas where northern populations were found. However, it was still abundant in at least some southern Chilean localities in 2003; indeed, it appears that the species reaches its highest densities in regions of the Archipelago, where habitat disturbance is minimal (M. Crump pers. comm.). In Argentina, this is a scarce species and appears to have declined at one site (Puerto Blest, Río Negro Province) during the past 50 years.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It generally occurs in the leaf-litter of temperate Nothofagus forests; it is also present in forest bogs. Females deposit eggs in the leaf-litter. When the larvae inside the eggs begin to move, adult males ingest the eggs and incubate them in vocal sacs. Larvae develop inside the male and emerge after metamorphosis. The species is not tolerant of habitat disturbance.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In the north, the main threats are drought and pine forestry, while in the south it is clear-cutting of forest. Declines that have taken place in suitable habitat could be the result of other threats, such as climate change or disease (possibly chytridiomycosis, although this normally impacts species that are associated with water, and it has not previously been reported from Chile).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are several protected areas in the range of the species, though there remains a need for improved maintenance and protection of native forest habitats, particularly in the north. Close population monitoring of this species is required given the declines seen in suitable habitat. In Chile, it is listed as "Endangered" (En Peligro de Extinción) (Reglamento de la Ley de Caza, Chile, 1998).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.3. Forest - Subantarctic
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.5. Other impacts
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions

Bibliography [top]

Busse, K. 1970. Care of the young by male Rhinoderma darwini. Copeia: 395.

Busse, K. 1991. Bemerkungen zum Fortpflanzungsverhalten und zur Zucht von Rhinoderma darwinii. Herpetofauna: 11-21.

Cei, J.M. 1962. Batracios de Chile. Ediciones de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago de Chile.

Cei, J.M. 1980. Amphibians of Argentina. Monitore Zoologico Italiano N.S. Monografia.

Díaz-Páez, H. and Ortiz, J.C. 2003. Evaluación del estado de conservación de los anfibios en Chile. Assessment of the conservation status of amphibians in Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 76: 509-525.

Formas, J.R. 1995. Anfibios. In: J.M. Simonetti, T.K. Arroyo, TA. Spotorno and E. Loz (eds), Diversidad Biológica de Chile, Comisión nacional de ciencia y tecnología (CONICYT), Santiago-Chile.

Glade, A. 1993. Red List of Chilean Terrestrial vertebrates. Corporación nacional forestal (CONAF), Santiago-Chile.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).

Jorquera, B. 1986. Biología de la reproducción del género Rhinoderma. Anales del Museo de Historia Natural. Valparaíso, Chile: 53-62.

Jorquera, B., Garrido, O. and Pugín, E. 1982. Comparative studies of the digestive tract development between Rhinoderma darwinii and R. rufum. Journal of Herpetology: 204-214.

Jorquera, B., Pugín, E. and Goicoechea, O. 1972. Tabla de desarrollo normal de Rhinoderma darwini. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria: 5-19.

Lavilla, E.O. 1987. La Larva de Rhinoderma darwinii D. and B. (Anura: Rhinodermatidae). Acta Zoologica Lilloana: 81-88.

Lavilla, E.O., Ponssa, M.L., Baldo, D., Basso, N., Bosso, A., Céspedez, J., Chebez, J.C., Faivovich, J., Ferrari, L., Lajmanovich, R., Langone, J.A., Peltzer, P., Úbeda, C., Vaira, M. and Vera Candioti, F. 2000. Categorización de los Anfibios de Argentina. Categorización de los Anfibios y Reptiles de la República Argentina: 11-34.

Servicio Agrícola Ganadero. 1998. Cartilla de caza. Imp. I. Flores, Santiago de Chile.

Veloso, A. 1998. Variabilidad genética y distribución geográfica de Rhinoderma darwinii (Amphibia, Rhinodermatidae). Simposio Darwin en Chiloé. Reflexiones sobre Historia, Ecología y Evolución. 22 al 26 de noviembre de 1998, Ancud, Chiloé, Chile.

Veloso, A. and Navarro, J. 1988. Lista Sistemática y distribución geográfica de anfibios y reptiles de Chile. Bollettino del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali - Torino 6(2): 481-539.


Citation: Carmen Úbeda, Alberto Veloso, Herman Núñez, Esteban Lavilla. 2010. Rhinoderma darwinii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T19513A8944391. . Downloaded on 23 November 2017.
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