|Scientific Name:||Albula virgata|
|Species Authority:||Jordan & Jordan, 1922|
|Taxonomic Notes:||The nomenclature of the bonefish family Albulidae is currently in a state of revision. Until recently, bonefish were considered to be comprised of two species, the circumglobal Albula vulpes and the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Albula nemoptera; however, new molecular genetic information indicates that there are at least eight morphologically indistinguishable, but genetically distinct species (Colborn et al. 2001). Wallace and Tringali (2010) have recently found nine distinct species.
This species is part of the Indo-Pacific species complex, comprised of two additional species, Albula argentea and Albula oligolepis (Hidaka et al. 2008).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Adams, A., Guindon, K., Horodysky, A., MacDonald, T., McBride, R., Shenker, J. & Ward, R.|
|Reviewer(s):||Harwell, H. & Raynal, M.|
This species is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands (Colborn et al. 2001, Hidaka et al. 2008). Little information exists regarding its ecology, life history characteristics, and fishery gear interactions. Reported habitats for this species (shallow sand flats) are rare and fragmented in the Hawaiian Islands. The paucity of data for this species warrants its listing as Data Deficient.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands (Colborn et al. 2001, Hidaka et al. 2008).|
Native:United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is not commonly encountered and is not known to occur in fishery or survey data. Five specimens from three collections are reported from museums (accessed through the Fishnet2 Portal, www.fishnet2.net, 2011-05-14).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The maximum size recorded for this species is 32.2 cm SL (Hidaka et al. 2008). It is sometimes seen in small schools, usually over sand flats in shallow water. This species feeds primarily on small molluscs, worms, and crustaceans that live beneath the sand; its conical snout is well adapted to probe for food in the sand (Randall 2010). Reported habitats for this species (shallow sand flats) are rare and fragmented in the Hawaiian Islands.|
|Use and Trade:||Bonefish were an important food resource for early Hawaiians and are targeted today by a mix of commercial, recreational and subsistence fishers. Commercial landings of bonefish in Hawaii have declined from over 136.4 mt in 1900 to only 1.2 mt in 2001 (Friedlander et al. 2008). These statistics, however, likely represent multiple bonefish species but are assumed to be predominantly A. glossodonta.|
|Major Threat(s):||Commercial landings of bonefish in Hawaii have decreased dramatically over the past few decades, presumably because of overfishing and loss of habitat, from over 300,000 lbs in 1900 to less than 3,000 lbs. since 2002. Bonefish were the most important species in the commercial seine fishery between 1966 and 1970, with average annual yields of nearly 18,000 pounds. Although the presence of multiple species within the fishery makes species-specific declines hard to pinpoint, the commercial seine catch now averages only 581lbs per year, accounting for less than 8% of the catch. Reported habitats for this species (shallow sand flats) are rare in the Hawaiian Islands. The limited range of this species may also make it vulnerable to local threats, such as habitat loss (Friedlander et al. 2008). Little is known about post-release mortality for the catch-and-release fishery.|
|Conservation Actions:||The state of Hawaii has recently raised the minimum size requirement for bonefish recreational fishery from 23 cm TL to 36 cm TL, although there is neither a closed season nor a bag limit (Friedlander et al. 2008). Given the maximum recorded size of 32 cm for this species, these regulations preclude the harvest of this species. This species likely occurs in Mrine Protected Areas (MPAs).|
Colborn, J., Crabtree, R.E., Shaklee, J.B., Pfeiler, E. and Bowen, B.W. 2001. The evolutionary enigma of bonefishes (Albula spp.): cryptic species and ancient separations in a globally-distributed shorefish. Evolution 55: 807-820.
Fishnet2 Portal. 2011. Available at: http://www.fishnet2.net.
Friedlander, A.M., Caselle, J.E., Beets, J., Lowe, C.G., Bowen, B.W., Ogawa, T.K., Kelley, K.M., Calitri, T., Lange, M. and Anderson, B.S. 2008. Biology and ecology of the recreational bonefish fishery at Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge with comparisons to other Pacific islands. In: J.S. Ault (ed.), Biology and Management of the World Tarpon and Bonefish Fisheries, pp. 27-56. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida.
Hidaka, K., Iwatsuki, Y. and Randall, J.E. 2008. A review of the Indo-Pacific bonefishes of the Albula argentea complex, with a description of a new species. Ichthyological Research 55: 53-64.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
Randall, J.E. 2010. Shore Fishes of Hawaii: Revised Edition. University of Hawai'I Press, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.
Wallace, E.M. and Tringali, M.D. 2010. Identification of a novel member in the family Albulidae (bonefishes). Journal of Fish Biology 76: 1972-1983.
|Citation:||Adams, A., Guindon, K., Horodysky, A., MacDonald, T., McBride, R., Shenker, J. & Ward, R. 2012. Albula virgata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 July 2015.|
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