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Redunca fulvorufula 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Redunca fulvorufula (Afzelius, 1815)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Mountain Reedbuck
French Redunca de montagne
Taxonomic Notes: There are three recognized subspecies each of which has a separate distribution: Southern Mountain Reedbuck (R. f. fulvorufula); Chanler’s Mountain Reedbuck (R. f. chanleri); and Western Mountain Reedbuck (R. f. adamauae) (Ansell 1972, Avenant 2013). The extent of genetic variation between the three forms has not been thoroughly investigated.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2ad ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-08-12
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Hoffmann, M.
Justification:
The Mountain Reedbuck was, until recently, represented by good-sized, stable or increasing populations in protected areas and private land in southern Africa. The East and West African populations are much smaller. However, recent evidence has emerged that the South African population underwent a decline of 61-73% in the last three generations (15 years). This is by far the largest of the three populations and results in an overall decline of 55% in three generations.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The Mountain Reedbuck (Redunca fulvorufula) occurs in three disjunct and widely separated populations in West, East and southern Africa (East 1999, Avenant 2013).

Western Mountain Reedbuck (R. f. adamauae) has been reduced to a small, declining remnant subpopulation in Nigeria in Gashaka-Gumti National Park (N.P.) and the Gotel Mountains adjoining the park’s southern boundary, and in Cameroon in the Adamaoua Mountains and the hunting zones below, as well as in the hunting zones between Benoue and Bouba Ndjida N.P. (East 1999, Nicholas 2004, Avenant 2013). Chanler's Mountain Reedbuck (R. f. chanleri) occurs in south-eastern Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, and northern Tanzania. Southern Mountain Reedbuck (R. f. fulvorufula) occurs in South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana, and Lubombo Mountains of Mozambique.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Botswana; Cameroon; Ethiopia; Kenya; Lesotho; Mozambique; Nigeria; South Africa; South Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):1500
Upper elevation limit (metres):5000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The total population was estimated at over 36,000 individuals in 1999 (33,000 Southern Mountain Reedbuck, 2,900 Chanler's Mountain Reedbuck, and 450 Western Mountain Reedbuck), although the estimate for Chanler’s Mountain Reedbuck may be very conservative if this subspecies still occurs in significant numbers on private land in Kenya (East 1999). The estimate for Western Mountain Reedbuck may also be slightly low; they have been reported as locally common, albeit declining, in Gashaka Gumti N.P. (Nicholas 2004). The Southern Mountain Reedbuck has recently been reported to have unexpectedly declined by 61-73% (Taylor et al. 2016).

Densities of Mountain Reedbuck within protected areas vary greatly according to factors such as the extent of suitable habitat. Estimated densities of the southern subspecies in protected areas in South Africa vary from 0.1/km² or less in areas such as Karoo, Addo-Zuurberg and Marakele N.P.s to 3.0-3.5/km² in Golden Gate Highlands and Royal Natal N.P.s and 7.5/km² in Mountain Zebra N.P. lrby (1977) reported a density of 4.9/km² of Chanler’s Mountain Reedbuck on ranchland in Kenya’s Rift Valley.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Mountain Reedbuck live on ridges and hillsides in broken rocky country and high-altitude grasslands (often with some tree or bush cover), from 1,500-5,000 m (East 1999, Avenant 2013). They are predominantly grazers, and water is an important habitat requirement.
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):5.0

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The Mountain Reedbuck is hunted for sport, food, and handicraft materials. The proportions of animals taken from the wild and from ranches is not available.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats to Mountain Reedbuck include the expansion of human settlement, poaching, widespread disturbance by cattle herders and their livestock, and hunting by dogs (Avenant 2013).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Southern Mountain Reedbuck occur chiefly on private land but also in many protected areas (Taylor et al. 2016). In South Africa alone, they are protected in at least nine National Parks, and in numerous provincial reserves and conservancies.

Chanler’s Mountain Reedbuck occur in viable populations in Awash, Nechisar, Omo and Mago N.P.s (Ethiopia), the Aberdares, Nairobi and Lake Nakuru N.P.s (Kenya), and Arusha and Tarangire N.P.s and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (Tanzania) (East 1999).

Western Mountain Reedbuck occur in the Gashaka-Gumpti N.P., while in Cameroon there is some protection from poachers in the hunting zones below the Adamaoua Mountains and in the hunting zones between Benoue and Bouba Ndjida N.P. (East 1999, Avenant 2013).

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.7. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends

Bibliography [top]

Ansell, W.F.H. 1972. Part 2, 15 Family Artiodactyla. In: J. Meester and H.W. Setzer (eds), The Mammals of Africa: An Identification Manual, pp. 1-84. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Avenant, N.L. 2013. Redunca fulvorufula Mountain Reedbuck. In: Kingdon, J. and Hoffmann, M. (eds), The Mammals of Africa. Volume 6. Pigs, Hippopotanuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer, and Bovids, pp. 422-426. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.

East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Irby, L. R. 1977. Studies on mountain reedbuck populations with special reference to Loskop Dam Nature Reserve. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 7: 73-86.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).

Nicholas, A. 2004. A brief update on the status of the Adamawa Mountain Reedbuck (Redunca fulvorufula adamauae) in Gashaka Gumpti National Park, Nigeria. Antelope Survey Update 9: 43-46.

Taylor, A., Avenant, N., Schulze, E., Viljoen, P., Child, M.F. 2016. A conservation assessment of Redunca fulvorufula fulvorufula. In: M.F. Child, L. Roxburgh, E. Do Linh Sanh, D. Raimondo, H.T. Mostaert-Davies (ed.), The Red List of Mammals of South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho., South African National Biodiversity Instritute and Endangered Wildlife Trust , Pretoria.


Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2017. Redunca fulvorufula. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T19391A50193881. . Downloaded on 24 November 2017.
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