|Scientific Name:||Chelonodon pleurospilus|
|Species Authority:||(Regan, 1919)|
Chelonodontops pulchellus Smith, 1958
Sphaeroides pleurospilus (Regan, 1919)
Sphoeroides pleurospilus (Regan, 1919)
Tetrodon pleurospilus Regan, 1919
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Shao, K., Liu, M., Jing, L., Hardy, G., Leis, J.L. & Matsuura, K.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Carpenter, K.E., Comeros-Raynal, M., Harwell, H. & Sanciangco, J.|
Chelonodon pleurospilus is endemic to South Africa where it is known only from the Xora river mouth to Durban to depths of 10 m. It is found in shallow waters and is a demersal species. There is currently no reason to question the taxonomic validity of this species, and it is assumed to be valid. It appears to be a somewhat rare species which is poorly represented in museum collections. Chelonodon pleurospilus is found in very shallow waters where it is vulnerable to coastal development and pollution. This species has an estimated area of occupancy (AOO) of 91 km2, which was calculated using a 1–10 m depth layer. It is known from few locations (under five). Durban is considered to be one of the most heavily polluted areas in South Africa due to heavy industrialization. Chelonodon pleurospilus is therefore listed as Endangered, B2ab(iii).
|Range Description:||In the Western Indian Ocean Chelonodon pleurospilus is known from Xora mouth to Durban (South Africa) (Smith and Heemstra 1986). It has an estimated area of occupancy (AOO) of 91 km2.|
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – southeast; Indian Ocean – western
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no species-specific population information available for C. pleurospilus. It is only known from the east coast of South Africa and is rare (Matsuura 2002). Specimens of C. pleurospilus are rare in museum collections (Accessed through the Fishnet2 Portal, www.fishnet2.org, 2013-04-20).|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Chelonodon pleurospilus is a demersal species. |
Tetraodontids are capable of inflating their abdomens with water when frightened or injured, and are capable of producing toxins in the skin, gonads, or liver (Allen and Randall 1977). Fishes in the family Tetraodontidae have the smallest vertebrate genomes known to date (Neafsey and Palumbi 2003).
Tetraodontids are characterized by a tough skin that is often covered with small spinulous scales, a beak-like dental plate divided by a median suture, a slit-like gill opening anterior to the base of the pectoral fin, no pelvic fins, no fin spines, a single usually short-based dorsal fin, a single usually short-based anal fin, and no ribs. They are capable of inflating their abdomens with water when frightened or disturbed and are capable of producing and accumulating toxins such as tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin in the skin, gonads, and liver. The degree of toxicity varies by species, and also according to geographic area and season (Allen and Randall 1977, Allen and Erdmann 2012). Fishes in the family Tetraodontidae have the smallest vertebrate genomes known to date (Neafsey and Palumbi 2003)
|Use and Trade:||This species is not utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||South-central Durban is heavily industrialized, and is considered to be one of the most heavily polluted areas of South Africa (Nriagu et al. 1999).|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures known for this species.|
Allen, G.R. and Erdmann, M.V. 2012. Reef Fishes of the East Indies. Tropical Reef Research, Perth, Australia.
Allen, G.R. and Randall, J.E. 1977. Review of the Sharpnose Pufferfishes (subfamily Canthigasterinae) of the Indo-Pacific. Records of the Australian Museum 30(17): 475-517.
Eschmeyer, W. N. (ed.). 2012. Catalog of Fishes electronic version. Available at: http://research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp.
Fishnet 2 Portal. 2012. Fishnet 2 Portal. Available at: http://www.fishnet2.net.
IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 13 November 2014).
Matsuura, K. 2002. A Review of Two Morphologically Similar Puffers, Chelonodon laticeps and C. patoca. National Science Museum monographs 22: 173-178.
Neafsey, D.E. and Palumbi, S.R. 2003. Genome size evolution in pufferfish: a comparative analysis of Diodontid and Tetraodontid pufferfish genomes. Genome Research 13(5): 821-830.
Nriagu, J., Robins, T., Gary, L., Liggans, G., Davila, R., Supuwood, K., Harvey, C., Jinabhai, C., and Naidoo, R. 1999. Prevalence of asthma and respiratory symptoms in south-central Durban, South Africa. European journal of epidemiology 15(8): 747-755.
SAIAB National Fish Collection Database. Available at: http://saiab.ac.za:8080/WebSearchSAIAB/index.jsp.
Smith, M.M. and Heemstra, P.C. 1986. Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
|Citation:||Shao, K., Liu, M., Jing, L., Hardy, G., Leis, J.L. & Matsuura, K. 2014. Chelonodon pleurospilus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T193734A2268868.Downloaded on 20 February 2017.|
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